Isha upanishad
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Om ! That is full; this is full, (for) from the full the full (indeed) arises.
When the full is taken from the full, what remains is full indeed.
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!
- ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान् विश्वानि देव वयुनानि विद्वान् ।
अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो नैनद्देवा आप्नुवन्पूर्वमर्षत् ।
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Adoration to the Brahman. The mantras beginning with Isavasyam, etc., have not been utilized in rituals, because they serve the purpose of enlightening us on the true nature of the Atman who is not an anga of i.e., not connected with. Karma. The true nature of the Atman consists, as will be described, in its purity being untouched by sin, oneness, being eternal, having no body, omnipresence, etc., and as that conflicts with Karma, it is only reasonable that these mantras should not be utilized in rituals; nor is the true nature of the Atman thus defined, a product, a modification, a thing to be attained or a thing to be refined; nor is it of the nature of a doer or enjoyer so that it may be connected with Karma. All the Upanishads exhaust themselves in describing the true nature of the Atman; and the Gita; and the Mokshadharma are bent on the same end. Therefore all Karma lias been enjoined in accordance with worldly understanding, which attributes to the Atman diversity, agency, enjoyment, impurity, sinfulness, etc. Those that know who are competent to perform Karma and who are not, (Adhikaravidah) tell us that he who seeks the fruits of Karma—visible such as the inherent splendour of a Brahmin and invisible such as Heaven,etc.,—and thinks “I am a twice-born free from any defect such as being one-eyed or hunch-backed, &c., which disqualifies one for the performance of Karma” is entitled to perform Karma. So, these mantras by enlightening (us) on the true nature of the Atman remove our natural ignorance and produce in us the knowledge of the oneness, etc., of the Atman,—the means of uprooting grief, delusion, etc., the concomitants of Samsara.

We shall now briefly comment upon the mantras, the persons competent to study which, the subject matter of which, the relevancy of which (samhandha) and the fruits of which, have been thus declared.

ओं | पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥

oṃ | pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidaṃ pūrṇātpūrṇamudacyate |
pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate ||

“The whole (Brahman) is all that is invisible. The whole (Brahman) is all that is visible. The whole (Hiranyagarbha) was horn out of the whole (Brahman). When the whole (the Universe) is absorbed into the whole (Brahman) the whole alone (Brahman) remains.”

Om. Peace! Peace!! Peace!!! (Ⅴ)
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Om. All this should be covered by the Lord, whatsoever moves on the earth. By such a renunciation protect (thyself). Covet not the wealth of others.
- ॐ ईशा वास्यमिदँ सर्वं यत्किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् ।
ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
- All this—whatsoever moveth on the earth—should he covered by the Lord. That renounced, enjoy. Covet not anybody’s wealth. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

The word ‘Isa’ is from the verb ‘Ishte’ (rules) and means ‘by the Lord.’ The Lord is Paramesvara, the Paramatman of all. He rules everything being the Atman of all. Should he covered by the Lord, by his own self, the Atman. What? All this, whatsoever moveth on the earth. All this universe, movable and immovable, unreal in absolute truth, should he covered by his self, the Lord, Paramatman, with the idea, “I alone am all this as being the inner self of all.” Just as the had odour—the result of moisture, etc.,—produced by contact with water, in sandal and agaru, etc., is hidden (lost) in their naturally agreeable smell produced by the process of rubbing, similarly all this on this earth (the word earth being illustratively used for the whole Cosmos) differentiated as name, form, and action, this bundle of modifications, superimposed upon the Atman by ignorance, and consisting in this seeming duality with its distinctions of doer, enjoyer, etc., will be abandoned by the contemplation of the true Atman. One who thus contemplates on the self as the Paramatman is bound to renounce the three-fold desire of son, etc., and not perform Karma. ‘Tena tyaktena’ means ‘by such renunciation.’ It is well-known that one’s son or servant, abandoned or dead, having therefore no bond of connection, does not protect that one. ‘denunciation’, therefore, is the meaning of this word tyaktena. Bhunjithah means protect. Having thus renounced all desires, do not cherish any desire for wealth. ‘Anybody's wealth’; do not long for wealth either yours or another’s. Svit is a meaningless particle.

Or, it may be thus interpreted. Do not covet. Why? ‘Whose is wealth?’ is used in the sense of an objection; for nobody has any wealth which could be coveted. The meaning is “all this has been renounced by the contemplation of Jsvara, that the Atman is all. All this, therefore, belongs to the Atman and the Atman is all. Do not, therefore, covet what is unreal.” (Ⅴ)
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By performing karma in this world (as enjoined by the scriptures) should one yearn to live a hundred years. Thus action does not bind thee, the doer. There is no other way than this.
- कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतँ समाः ।
तदेजति तन्नैजति तद्दूरे तद्वन्तिके ।
- Should one wish to live a hundred years on this earth, he should live doing Karma. While thus, (as) man, you live, there is no way other than this by which Karma will not cling to you. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Thus the drift of the Vedic text is that he who knows the Atman should renounce the three-fold desire of son, etc., and save his Atman by being centred in the knowledge of the Atman (Gnananishtha). The mantras now proceed to inculcate the following for the benefit of him who does not know the Atman and is not competent to cognize the Atman as above indicated.

Kurvanneva means certainly doing, i.e., ‘only by doing.’ Karmani means ‘Agnihotara, etc.’ Jijivishet means ‘should like to live.’ Satamsamah means ‘a hundred years.’ It has been declared that that is a man’s longest life. Thus declaring agreeably to natural inclination the desire to live a hundred years, the text lays down the injunction in respect of how one should live—continually performing Karma and not otherwise. If you would thus live, content to be a man, there is no other mode of life than the one of performing Agnihotra, etc., by which bad Karma may not cling to you. Therefore, one should like to live doing Karma enjoined by the Sastras such as Agnihotra, etc. But how is this drift arrived at? By the previous mantra, Gnananishtha has been inculcated to the sanyasin. By this. Karmanistha is enjoined on those who are not able to become sanyasins. Do you not remember it was pointed out that the antithesis between Knowledge and Karma is a fact unshakable like a mountain? Here also it has been said that be who would like to live must perform Karma and that this universe must be abandoned as unreal, in the contemplation of the Lord as all, by one who would protect his Atman having renounced all and not coveting anybody’s wealth. According to the Srutis it is settled that one should not long for either life or death and should leave for the forest. There is also the injunction by which one is interdicted from returning thence—thus ordaining sanyasa.

The distinction in the results of the two courses will also be pointed out. (The Narayana Upanishad) says

“In the beginning these two roads were laid. The road through Karma and sanyasa; the latter consists in the renunciation of the threefold desire. Of these, the road through sanyasa is the preferable one.”

The Taittiriya Upanishad also says, “Renunciation (Nyasa) certainly is to be preferred.”

Bhagavan Vyasa, the preceptor of the Vedas, after much discussion told his son his firm conviction in the following text.

“These then are the two roads on which the Vedas are based. Both the courses—one which leads to Karma and the other which draws away from Karma have been explained, etc.” This division will be explained. (Ⅴ)
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Those worlds of Asuras (demons) are enshrouded by blinding gloom. Those who are the slayers of the Self go to them after death.
- असुर्या नाम ते लोका अन्धेन तमसाऽऽवृताः ।
कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतँ समाः ।
- Those births partake of the nature of the Asuras and are enveloped in blind darkness. After leaving the body they who kill their Atman attain them. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

This mantra is begun for the purpose of condemning those who have no knowledge of the Atman. Asuryah: even Devas, etc., are Asuras, relatively to becoming one with the Paramatman. Asuryah because they belong to them (Asuras). Kama is a meaningless word. Those lokas (births) so called because the fruits of Karma are there perceived or enjoyed (lokyante). Andhena tamasa, ‘ignorance which consists in inability to see one’s self.’ Avritah means covered. These births down to the immovable. Pretya means ‘leaving the body.’ ‘Abhigachhanti’ means ‘attain in accordance with their Karma and Knowledge.’ ‘Atmahanah’ means ‘those who kill the Atman.’ Who are they? Those who do not know the Atman. How do they kill the eternal Atman? By drawing the veil of ignorance over the Atman that exists. Those who do not, under the influence of their natural tendencies (Prakriti), know the Atman are called ‘Atmahanah’ (slayers of the Atman); because in their case the result of the existence of the Atman, i. e., the knowledge of its undecaying and immortal nature is veiled, as if the Atman were killed. By this fault of slaying the Atman, they get into Samsara. (Ⅴ)
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Unmoving, It is one, faster than the mind. The senses cannot reach It, for It proceeds ahead. Remaining static It overtakes others that run. On account of Its presence, Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings.
- अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो नैनद्देवा आप्नुवन्पूर्वमर्षत् ।
अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽविद्यामुपासते ।
- It is motionless, one, faster than mind; and the Devas (the senses) could not overtake it which ran before. Sitting, it goes faster than those who run after it. By it, the all-pervading air (Sutratman) supports the activity of all living beings. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

As the ignorant by killing their Atman whirl in Samsara, contrariwise, those who know the Atman attain emancipation; and they are not slayers of the Atman. What then is the nature of the Atman will now be explained.

Anejat is a compound of na and ejat. The root ejri means to shake. Shaking is motion, i.e., deviation, from a fixed position. Free from that, i. e., ever constant. It is, besides, one in all Bhatas. It is fleeter than the mind, whose characteristics are volition, etc. How is this inconsistent statement made i. e., that it is constant and motionless and at the same time fleeter than the mind? This is no fault. This is possible with reference to its being thought of, as unconditioned and conditioned. It is constant and motionless in its unconditioned state. That the mind travels fastest is well-known to all, seeing that the mind encased within the body and characterised by volition and doubt is able at one volition to travel to such distant places as the Brahmaloka etc.; and travelling so fast as it does, it perceives on landing (at its destination) that the intelligent Atman has, as it were, gone there before it; therefore, the Atman is said to be fleeter than the mind. Devas, from the root which means ‘enlighten,’ signifies the senses such as the eye, etc. Etat means the entity of the Atman which is now being treated of. These senses could not overtake it. The mind is faster than these, because these are distanced by the activity of the mind. Not even the semblance of the Atman is within the perception of the senses; for, it had gone even before the mind which is fleeter than they, being all-pervading, like the Akas. The entity of the Atman, all-pervading, devoid of any attributes of samsara, and in its unconditioned state subject to no modification, appears to undergo all the changes of samsara. superposed upon it. and though one, appears, in the eyes of ignorant men, diverse and enclosed in every body. It seems to travel beyond the reach of others’ mind, speech, the senses, &c., which are dissimilar to the Atman, though they run fast. The sense of ‘seems’ is suggested by the mantra using tishtkat (sitting). ‘Sitting, means ‘being itself inactive.’ ‘Tasmin’ means ‘while the entity of the Atman endures.’ ‘Matarisva’ means ‘air,’ so called, because it moves (svayati) in space (matari—antarikshe). Air (matarisva) is that whose activity sustains all life, on which all causes and effects depend, and in which all these inhere, which is called sutra (thread, as it were) supporting all the worlds through which it runs. The word ‘Apah’ means all Karma—the manifested activity of all living things. (This air) allots to fire, sun, clouds, &c., their several functions of flaming, burning, sinning, raining, &c. Or, it may be said that it supports these, from the Srutis, such as “From fear of this, the wind blows, &c.” The meaning is that all these modifications of effects and causes take place only while the eternally intelligent entity of the Atman, the source-of all, endures. (Ⅴ)
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It moves; It moves not. It is far; It is near. It is within all; It is without all.
- तदेजति तन्नैजति तद्दूरे तद्वन्तिके ।
पूषन्नेकर्षे यम सूर्य प्राजापत्य व्यूह रश्मीन् समूह तेजः ।
- It moves, it is motionless. It is distant, it is near. It is within all, it is without all this. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Showing that there is no superfluity of mantras, the following mantra declares again what was expressed by the previous mantra. ‘It’ means ‘the entity of the Atman which is being treated of.’ ‘Ejati’ means ‘moves.’ ‘Xaijati’ means ‘does not move of itself.’ The meaning is that though motionless in itself, it seems to move. Besides, it is distant, i.e., it seems to be far removed, because it is not attainable by the ignorant, even in the course of hundreds of millions of ages. Tadvantikê is split into tad, u and antikê. It is very near to the knowing; for, it is their Atman. It is not merely distant and near; it is within everything according to the Sruti “The Atman which is within everything.” All means ‘all the world of names and forms and activity.’ It is without all this, being all-pervading like the Akas; and within everything, being extremely subtle. It is indivisible according to the Sruti “It is dense with knowledge.” (Ⅴ)
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He who perceives all beings in the Self alone, and the Self in all beings, does not entertain any hatred on account of that perception.
- यस्तु सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मन्येवानुपश्यति ।
यस्मिन्सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मैवाभूद्विजानतः ।
- Who sees everything in his Atman and his Atman in everything, by that he feels no revulsion. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Who, i.e., the sanyasin, who wishes for emancipation. All Bhutas, i.e., from the Avyakta down to the immoveable creation. ‘Seeing them all in his own Atman’ means ‘seeing that they are not distinct from his own self.’ ‘Seeing his Atman in them all’ means ‘seeing his Atman as the Atman of all.’ Just as he finds his Atman the witness of all his perceptions, the thinking principle, pure and unconditioned, the soul of his body, which is a bundle of effects and causes, he finds bis Atman in the same unconditioned state, the life principle of all the universe, from the Avyakta down to the immoveable. He who thus views does not turn with revulsion by reason of such view. This statement is only a declaration of a truth already known. All revulsion arises only when one sees anything bad distinct from one’s Atman. To one who sees his pure Atman alone continuous, there is no other object which could excite the feeling of revulsion. Therefore he does not turn with revulsion. (Ⅴ)
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When a man realises that all beings are but the Self, what delusion is there, what grief, to that perceiver of oneness?
- यस्मिन्सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मैवाभूद्विजानतः ।
वायुरनिलममृतमथेदं भस्मांतँ शरीरम् ।
- When to the knower, all Bhutas become one with his own Atman, what perplexity, what grief, is there when he sees this oneness. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

This other text also expresses the same purport. The word ‘Yasmin’ means either ‘when’ or ‘in which Atman.’ When all the Bhutas have become one with the Atman, owing to the knowledge of the Atman, then or in the case of the Atman, how can there he perplexity or grief? Perplexity and grief, the seed of all desire and Karma, affect the ignorant, hut not him who sees the oneness, pure and like the sky. The negation of perplexity and grief—the effect of ignorance—being shown by the form of a question, the total uprooting of all samsara with its seed has been indicated. (Ⅴ)
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That (Self) is all-pervading, radiant, bodiless, soreless, without sinews, pure, untainted by sin, the all-seer, the lord of the mind, transcendent and self-existent. That (Self) did allot in proper order to the eternal Prajapatis known as samvalsara (year) their duties.
- स पर्यगाच्छुक्रमकायमव्रण- मस्नाविरँ शुद्धमपापविद्धम् ।
सम्भूतिं च विनाशं च यस्तद्वेदोभयँ सह ।
- He pervaded all, resplendent, bodiless, scatheless, having no muscles, pure, untouched by sin; far-seeing, omniscient, transcendent, self-sprung, (he) duly allotted to the various eternal creators their respective functions. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

This text describes the real nature of the Atman, spoken of. in the previous texts. Sah means ‘the Atman previously spoken of.’ ‘Paryagat means went round.’ The meaning is ‘he is all-pervading like the Akas.’ Sukram means pure, hence bright, resplendent. Akayam, means ‘bodiless,’ i.e., having no linga sarira or subtle, boy. Avranam means ‘scatheless.’ ‘Asnaviram’ means ‘having no muscles.’ The adjuncts Avranam and Asnaviram show that the Atman has no sthula sarira or gross body. By the word suddha, pure or free from the taint of ignorance, it is shown that it has no karana sarira or causal body. ‘Apapa-viddham means ‘untouched by Karma, good or bad.’ ‘Sukram’ and the following epithets are to be read as masculine, because of the beginning and the end being in the masculine, as sah, kavih etc. Kavih means far-seeing, i.e., all-seeing; for, says the Sruti “There is no seer other than the Atman, etc.” ‘Manishi’ means ‘prompting the mind,’ hence ‘omniscient, omnipotent.’ Paribhuh means ‘being above all.’ Svayambhuh means ‘himself being all above and all below becomes all.’ He, the ever free, and omnipotent, being omniscient, allotted their respective functions, i.e., objects to be created to the various and eternal Prajapatis, known popularly as ‘years,’ as aids to the enjoyment of the fruits of Karma. (Ⅴ)
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Those who worship avidya (karma born of ignorance) go to pitch darkness, but to a greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to Vidya (knowledge of the Devatas).
- अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽविद्यामुपासते ।
अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽसम्भूतिमुपासते ।
- They who worship Avidya alone fall into blind darkness; and they who worship Vidya alone fall into even greater darkness. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

The first purport of the Vedas, the acquisition of knowledge of the Brahman by renunciation of all desires has been explained in the first mantra Isavasyam, etc. The second alternative, i.e., the spending of life in continually performing Karma has been explained, for the benefit of the ignorant who are not capable of Gnananishtha, in the second mantra beginning with ‘Kurvanneveha Karmani.’ The bifurcation, i.e., Knowledge and Karma here pointed out by these texts has also been clearly indicated in the Brihadaranya Upanishad, by the text “he wished, let me have a wife, etc.” And from the texts ‘Karma for the ignorant and men having desires’ and ‘the mind is his Atman and speech, bis wife, etc.,’ it is clear that ignorance and desires are the characteristics of one engaged in the performance of Karma. Thus, the result of Karma is the creation of the seven kinds of food and of an indentification of self with them considered, as the Atman. It has also been shown that concentration in the self, i.e., the Atman (as opposed to the performance of Karma) by the renunciation of the three-fold desire of wife, etc., is the only necessary condition for those who know the Atman. Indirectly by condemning the ignorant, the true nature of the Atman has-been disclosed to those sanyasins bent on the acquisition of knowledge by the text beginning with ‘Asurya - nama’ and ending with ‘saparyayat’ etc., so as to show that they alone and not those who have desires are qualified to acquire knowledge. To the same effect says the Svetasvatara Upanishad. “In the midst of a crowd of seers, he taught the greatest and the holiest truth to those who belonged to the highest order of life.” This text “Andhantamah,” etc., is addressed to those who desire to live here continually performing Karma. How is it inferred that this text is addressed to such only and not to all alike?, Because, he who has no desires has got over the false distinction between means and ends, according to the mantra “Yasmin sarvani bhutani, etc”; for, it is easy to perceive that none who is not a fool will like to associate the knowledge of unity of the Atman with Karma, or with any other piece of knowledge. But here, in view to combining two elements, the ignorant are ridiculed. That which can possibly combine with another, either from logic or from the Sastras, is here pointed out. It is the knowledge of the deities that is here represented as fit to combine with Karma, not the knowledge of the Paramatman; for a distinct result is predicated of the knowledge of the deities by the text by such knowledge, the Devaloka is attained.’ Either of such knowledge and Karma separately pursued is here denounced, not really to condemn but in view to the desirability of their combination; for distinct fruits are said to result from either individually, by the texts “by such knowledge, they climb up to it.” “by such knowledge is Devaloka attained,” “there they do not go who go south” and “by Karma is the abode of the manes attained. It is also well-known that nothing ordained by th e Sastras can ever become unworthy of performance.

Here. They enter into blind darkness. Who? They who follow Avidya. Avidya is something other than Vidya or knowledge, lienee Karma; for Karma is opposed to knowledge. The drift is that those who are continually performing Agnihotra etc., alone, fall into darkness. And they fall even into greater darkness. Who? Those who having given up Karma are always bent upon acquiring the knowledge of the deities. Reason is given for combining Knowledge and Karma each of which separately bears different fruits. If one of the two alone bore fruit and the other not, then by a well-recognised law that which bore no fruit by itself would become a mere appendage to the other. (Ⅴ)
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Different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by vidya and different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by avidya. Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us.
- अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्ययाऽन्यदाहुरविद्यया ।
असुर्या नाम ते लोका अन्धेन तमसाऽऽवृताः ।
- One result is predicated of Vidya and another of Avidya. We have so heard from wise men who taught us both Vidya and Avidya. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

‘Anyat’ means ‘something distinct.’ They say that by Vidya, some distinct result is produced according to the Srutis, “by knowledge is Devaloka attained” and “by knowledge they climb up to it.” They say that other results are produced by Avidya (Karma) according to the text “by Karma is the abode of the manes attained.” We have heard this stated to us by wise men, i.e., those preceptors who taught us both Knowledge and Karma. The purport is that this is their view as handed down from preceptor to disciple. (Ⅴ)
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He who knows both vidya and avidya together, transcends mortality through avidya and reaches immortality through vidya.
- विद्यां चाविद्यां च यस्तद्वेदोभयँ सह ।
स पर्यगाच्छुक्रमकायमव्रण- मस्नाविरँ शुद्धमपापविद्धम् ।
- He who simultaneously knows both Vidya and Avidya gets over Death by Avidya and attains immortality by Vidya. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

This being so, the following results. Vidya is the knowledge of the deities; Avidya is Karma. Who knows that both these should simultaneously be followed by the same person, he alone, so combining the two, gradually secures the one desirable end. ‘By Vidya’ means ‘by Karma such as Agnihotra, etc.’ ‘Death’ means ‘action and knowledge induced by Prakriti (nature).’ ‘Tirtva’ means ‘having got over.’ ‘By Avidya’ means ‘by the knowledge of the deities.’ ‘Asnute’ means ‘attains.’ To become one with the deities is what is called immortality (Amritam.) (Ⅴ)
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To pitch darkness they go who worship the Unmanifested (Prakriti). To a greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to the Manifested (Hiranyagarbha).
- अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽसम्भूतिमुपासते ।
अन्यदेवाहुः सम्भवादन्यदाहुरसम्भवात् ।
- They fall into blind darkness who worship the unborn Prakriti. They fall into greater darkness who are bent upon the Karya Brahman Hiranyagarbha. (12). (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Now, in view to the combining of the worship of the Avyakrita (Prakriti) and manifested Brahman, each in itself is denounced. “Asambhutih” is what is not Sambhutih or that which is born of another; hence unborn Prakriti. This again is ignorance, cause of all, known as Avyakrita. Those who worship this Prakriti, known as Avyakrita, ignorance which is the cause of all. the seed of all desire and Karma, and mere blindness in its nature, fall into corresponding or answering darkness which is blindness in its nature; and they who worship the Karya Brahman named Hiranyagarbha fall into even greater darkness. (Ⅴ)
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Different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Manifested and different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Unmanifested. Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us.
- अन्यदेवाहुः सम्भवादन्यदाहुरसम्भवात् ।
अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्ययाऽन्यदाहुरविद्यया ।
- They say one thing results from the worship of Hiranyagarbha and another from the worship of Prakriti. We have thus heard it stated by wise preceptors who taught us that. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Now, the distinction in the fruits of the two individual worships is jointed out, in view to their combination. They have said that from the worship of Sambhutih or Karya Brahman or Hiranyagarbha results the attainment of Anima and other Siddhis. Similarly, they have said that according to Paurairikas the absorption into Prakriti results from the worship of the unborn Prakriti. We have heard it thus stated by wise preceptors who taught us the fruits of the worship of Prakriti and Hiranyagarbha individually. (Ⅴ)
1. 14  
He who knows both the Unmanifested and the destructible (Hiranyagarbha) together, transcends death by the (worship of) the destructible and attains immortality by the (worship of ) the Unmanifested.
- सम्भूतिं च विनाशं च यस्तद्वेदोभयँ सह ।
हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् ।
- Those who worship the unmanifested Prakriti and Hiranyagarbha (Destruction) together, get over death through the worship of Hiranyagarbha and attain immortality through the worship of Prakriti. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

As this is so, this mantra declares the desirability of combining the worship of Prakriti and Hiranyayarbha as they combine to secure the one aim of the individual. ‘Vinasa’ means that active object whose characteristic attribute is Destruction, the abstract being here used for the concrete. ‘By vinasa’ means ‘by the worship of Hiranyagarbha.’ ‘Gets over death’ means ‘gets over the defects of vice, desires and anaisvaryam (limited powers) and attains anima and other siddhis which are the result of the worship of Hiranyagarbha. Having thus overcome anaisvaryam, death, etc., he, by the worship of Prakriti, attains immortality, i.e., absorbtion into Prakriti. It should be noted that the word Sambhutih is an apheresis for Asambhutih agreeably to the results predicated, i.e., absorption into Prakriti. (Ⅴ)
1. 15  
The face of the Truth (ie., Purusha in the solar orb) is veiled by a bright vessel. Mayst thou unveil it, O Sun, so as to be perceived by me whose dharma is truth.
- हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् ।
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥
- The entrance of the True is covered as if by a golden vessel. Remove, O sun, the covering that I who have been worshipping “The True” may behold it. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

The highest result that could be achieved. according to the Sastras, by wealth of men and the deities is absorption into Prakriti. Up to this is rotation in Samsara. Beyond this is the result of the pursuit of knowledge preceded by a renunciation of all desire, i.e., the seeing of the Atman in everything as indicated in verse 7. Thus the two-fold purport of the Vedas, one stimulating to activity and the other drawing to renunciation has been explained. The Brahmanas up to Pravargya Brahmana were utilized for the elucidation of the former purport of the Vedas which is indicated by mandatory and prohibitory injunctions. The Brihadaranyaka hereafter is to deal with the elucidation of the latter purport of the Vedas—renunciation. Now, by what road he, who has been performing Karma as enjoined from conception to the grave and along with it the worship of the lower Brahman in accordance with verse 11, attains immortality, will be explained. He who has been worshipping the manifested Brahman referred to in the passage “That is the True, the Aditya, the Purusha in this orb: and the Purusha in the left eye; both these are true” and also has been performing Karma as enjoined, entreats, when the hour of death is arrived, the way leading to the Atman—the True, by the text beginning with ‘Hiranmayena, etc.’ ‘Hiranmaya’ means seeming golden hence resplendent. ‘Patrena’ means as if by a lid forming a cover. ‘Satyasya,’ means ‘of the Brahman sitting in the orb of the Sun.’ ‘Apihitam’ means ‘covered.’ ‘Mukham’ means‘opening.’ ‘Apavrinu’ means ‘open.’ ‘Satyadharmaya,’ to me who have been worshipping Satya or the True or who have been practising Satya, i.e., ‘virtue as enjoined.’ ‘Drishtaye’ means ‘for realizing the Satya or the True which thou art.’ (Ⅴ)
1. 16  
O nourisher, pilgrim of the solitude, controller, absorber (of all rasas), offspring of Prajapati, cast away thy rays, gather them up and give up thy radiating brilliance. That form of thine, most graceful, I may behold. He, the Purusha (in the solar orb), I am.
- पूषन्नेकर्षे यम सूर्य प्राजापत्य व्यूह रश्मीन् समूह तेजः ।
यस्तु सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मन्येवानुपश्यति ।
- O Sun, sole traveller of the Heavens, controller of all, Surya, son of Prajapati remove thy rays and gather up thy burning light. I behold thy glorious form; 1 am he, the Purusha within thee. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

‘Pushan,’ vocative case meaning ‘O Sun.’ The Sun is called Pushan because he feeds the world. ‘Ekarshi’ means ‘one who travels alone.’ The Sun is called Vania, because he controls all. He is called Surya because he imbibes Prana, rays and liquids. ‘Prajapatya’ means ‘son of Prajapati.’ ‘Vyuha’ means ‘remove to a distance thy rays.’ ‘Samuha,’ means ‘gather up, i.e., contract.’ ‘Tejah’ means. ‘burning light.’ I wish to behold by thy grace thy most glorious form. Moreover I do not entreat thee like a servant. I am he the Parasha within the solar orb. composed of Vyakritis as limbs or parts. ‘Purusha' because he has the figure of a man or because he pervades the whole in the form of Prana and intelligence or because he occupies the city (of the Soul) i.e., (Ⅴ)
1. 17  
Let (my) vital air (prana) now attain the immortal Air (all-pervading Self); then let this body be reduced to ashes. Om, O mind, remember - remember that which has been done, O mind, remember - remember that which has been done.
- वायुरनिलममृतमथेदं भस्मांतँ शरीरम् ।
विद्यां चाविद्यां च यस्तद्वेदोभयँ सह ।
- (Let my) Prana melt into the all-pervading Air, the eternal Sutratman; and let this body he burnt by fire to ashes; Om. O mind, remember, remember my deeds; O mind, remember, remember my deeds. (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

Now, as I am dying, let my Prana leave its confinement within this body and join the all-pervading godly form of Air, i.e., the Sutratman. The word ‘reach’ should be supplied to complete the sentence. The idea ‘Let my Linga Sarira or subtle body purified by knowledge and Karma ascend’ must be supplied in virtue of the fact of the speaker entreating a passage. Let this body given as an oblation to the fire be reduced to ashes. Om, according to the forms of worship being a pratika (substitute) of the nature of the True and called Agni is mentioned as the same as Brahman. ‘Krato,’ vocative case, meaning ‘O mind whose characteristic is volition,’ ‘Remember’ i.e., time has come for me to remember what I should. Remember all that I have till now thought of ‘O Agni, remember what I have done’ i.e., remember all Karma which I have done from childhood. The repetition of the same words ‘Krito Sinara’ &c., expresses solicitude. (Ⅴ)
1. 18  
O Fire, O Deva, knower of all our actions or all our knowledge, lead us by the good path for enjoying the fruits of actions. Liberate us from our deceitful sins. We offer thee ever more our words of adoration.
- अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान् विश्वानि देव वयुनानि विद्वान् ।
अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो नैनद्देवा आप्नुवन्पूर्वमर्षत् ।
- O Agni, lead us by the good path to the enjoyment of the fruits of our deeds, knowing O God, all our deeds. Remove the sin of deceit from within us. We offer thee many prostrations by word of mouth. (18). (Ⅳ)
- Shri Shankaracharia commentary :

He requests passage again by another mantra. Naya means ‘lead.’ ‘Supatha’ means ‘by good path.’ The attribute in Supatha is used for the purpose of avoiding the southern route. The suppliant seems to say “I have been afflicted by going to and for, by the southern route by which one goes only to return. I therefore entreat you to take me by the good road through which there is no going and returning.” ‘Raye’ means ‘to wealth; i.e.. to the enjoyment of the fruits of our Karma.’ ‘Asman means ‘us,’ possessed of the fruits of the virtue aforesaid. ‘Visvani’ means ‘all.’ O God, ‘Vayunani’ means ‘deeds or knowledge.’ ‘Vidvan’ means ‘Knowing.’ Besides do this: ‘Yuyodhi’ means ‘destroy.’ ‘Asmat’ means ‘from us.’ ‘Juhuranam’ means ‘consisting in deceit.’ ‘Enah’ means ‘sin.’ ‘The meaning is:—Thus purified they could attain what they wish for. “But we are now unable to do you active service. We have to content ourselves by offering you many prostrations.”

Now a doubt is raised by some about the construction of the latter halves of mantras 11 and 14. We shall therefore enter into a brief discussion to solve the doubt. What the question is due to shall first he stated. It is, why not understand the term Vidya in those passages in its primary sense of ‘the knowledge of the Paramatmam,’ and so Amritatvam? They argue thus: granted that the knowledge of the Paramatman and the performance of Karma are mutually antagonistic and cannot therefore co-exist, this antagonism is not perceivable; for agreement and antagonism rest alike on the authority of the Sastras. Just as the performance of Karma and the acquisition of Knowledge are matters exclusively based on the Sastras, so also must be the question of their agreement or opposition. Thus we find that the prohibitory injunction ‘Do not kill any liv ing thing is overridden by another Sastraic injunction ‘Kill a sheep in a sacrifice.’ The same may apply to Karma and Knowledge. If from the text “They are opposed and travel different roads. Knowledge and Karma.” it is urged that they cannot co-exist, we say that from the text “He who follows both Knowledge and Karma, etc,” there is no antagonism between them. We answer that cannot he; for. they are opposed to each other in regard to their causes, nature and results. But if it he urged that from the impossibility of Knowledge and Karma being opposed and not opposed to each other and from the injunction to combine them there is no antagonism between them, that is unsound; for their co-existence is impossible. If it he argued that they may gradually grow to coexist. it is untenable; for when Knowledge arises. Karma cannot exist in the individual to whom Knowledge adheres. It is well known that when one knows that fire is hot and bright, he cannot at the same time think that fire is neither hot nor bright; or even entertain a doubt as to whether fire is bright or hot; for, according to the text “When to the knower all living things become one with his own Atman, where is grief or perplexity to one who sees this unity,” grief or perplexity is out of the question. We have already said that where ignorance ceases, its result, Karma, also ceases. The immortality in ‘attains immortality’ (in the passage under contemplation) means relative immortality and not absolute immortality. If the word Vidya in those texts meant the knowledge of the Paramatman, then the entreaty to the Sun for allowing a passage would become inappropriate. We therefore conclude w ith observing that our interpretation, i.e., that the combination desired is of Karma with the worship of the deities and not with the Knowledge of the Paramatman, is the purport of the mantras as commented upon by us. (Ⅴ)
1. 19  
Om! That is full; this is full, (for) from the full the full (indeed) arises.
When the full is taken from the full, what remains is full indeed.
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !
- ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान् विश्वानि देव वयुनानि विद्वान् ।
अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो नैनद्देवा आप्नुवन्पूर्वमर्षत् ।
1. 20  
Here ends the Isavasyopanishad, as contained in the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.
- Here ends the Commentary of Sankara Bhavatpada on the Vajasaneya Samhitopanishad or Isavasyopanishad.

Om! Peace! Peace!! Peace!!!

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