Shvetashvatara upanishad
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1.

ॐ सहनाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सह वीर्यं करवावहै ।
अग्निर्यत्राभिमथ्यते वायुर्यत्राधिरुध्यते ।
अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः ।


O m! May Brahman protect us both together.
May He nourish us both together.
May we both work together, with great energy.
May our study be vigorous and effective.
May we not hate each other.
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!



1.1

ब्रह्मवादिनो वदन्ति ।
भावग्राह्यमनीडाख्यं भावाभावकरं शिवम् ।
महान् प्रभुर्वै पुरुषः सत्वस्यैष प्रवर्तकः ।


S tudents of Brahman (i.e. the Vedas) discuss (among themselves): What is the cause? (Is it) Brahman? Whence are we born? Why do we live? Where is our final rest? Under whose orders are we, who know the Brahman, subjected to the law of happiness and misery?


1.2

कालः स्वभावो नियतिर्यदृच्छा भूतानि योनिः पुरुष इति चिन्त्या ।
क्षरं प्रधानममृताक्षरं हरः क्षरात्मानावीशते देव एकः ।


T ime, nature, law, chance, matter, energy, intelligence - neither these, nor combination of these, can bear examination because of their own birth, identity and the existence of the self. The self also is not a free agent, being under the sway of happiness and misery.


1.3

ते ध्यानयोगानुगता अपश्यन् देवात्मशक्तिं स्वगुणैर्निगूढाम् ।
त्रिरुन्नतं स्थाप्य समं शरीरं हृदीन्द्रियाणि मनसा सन्निवेश्य ।


P racticing the method of meditation, they realized that Being who is the God of religion, the Self of philosophy and the Energy of science; who exists as the self-luminous power in everyone; who is the source of the intellect, emotions and will; who is one without a second; who presides over all the causes enumerated above, beginning with time and ending with the individual soul; and who had been incomprehensible because of the limitations of their own intellect.


1.4

तमेकनेमिं त्रिवृतं षोडशान्तं शतार्धारं विंशतिप्रत्यराभिः ।
तिलेषु तैलं दधिनीव सर्पि रापः स्रोतःस्वरणीषु चाग्निः ।


W e think of Him as the universe resembling a wheel which has one felly with a triple tyre, sixteen extremities, fifty spokes, twenty counter-spokes and six sets of eight; which is driven along three different roads by means of a belt that is single yet manifold; and which each revolution gives rise to two.


1.5

पञ्चस्रोतोम्बुं पञ्चयोन्युग्रवक्रां पञ्चप्राणोर्मिं पञ्चबुद्ध्यादिमूलाम् ।
पुरुष एवेदँ सर्वं यद् भूतं यच्च भव्यम् ।


W e think of Him (in His manifestation as the universe) who is like a river that contains the waters of five streams; that has five big turnings due to five causes; that has the five Pranas for the waves, the mind - the basis of five-fold perception - for the source, and the five-fold misery for its rapids; and that has five whirlpools, five branches and innumerable aspects.


1.6

सर्वाजीवे सर्वसंस्थे बृहन्ते अस्मिन् हंसो भ्राम्यते ब्रह्मचक्रे ।
सर्वानन शिरोग्रीवः सर्वभूतगुहाशयः ।


I n this infinite wheel of Brahman, in which everything lives and rests, the pilgrim soul is whirled about. Knowing the individual soul, hitherto regarded as separate, to be itself the Moving Force, and blessed by Him, it attains immortality.


1.7

उद्गीतमेतत्परमं तु ब्रह्म तस्मिंस्त्रयं सुप्रतिष्ठाऽक्षरं च ।
ऋचो अक्षरे परमे व्योमन् यस्मिन्देवा अधि विश्वे निषेदुः ।


T his is expressly declared to be the Supreme Brahman. In that is the triad. It is the firm support, and it is the imperishable. Knowing the inner essence of this, the knowers of Veda become devoted to Brahman, merge themselves in It, and are released from birth.


1.8

संयुक्तमेतत् क्षरमक्षरं च व्यक्ताव्यक्तं भरते विश्वमीशः ।
सङ्कल्पनस्पर्शनदृष्टिमोहैर्ग्रासांबुवृष्ट्यात्मविवृद्धिजन्म ।


T he Lord supports this universe, which consists of a combination of the perishable and the imperishable, the manifest and the un-manifest. As long as the self does not know the Lord, it gets attached to worldly pleasures, and is bound; but when it knows Him, all fetters fall away from it.


1.9

ज्ञाज्ञौ द्वावजावीशनीशावजा ह्येका भोक्तृभोग्यार्थयुक्ता ।
ज्ञात्वा देवं सर्वपाशापहानिः क्षीणैः वलेशेर्जन्ममृत्युप्रहाणिः ।


T he conscious subject and the unconscious object, the master and the dependent, are both unborn. She, too, who is engaged in bringing about the relation of the enjoyer and the enjoyed (or between these two), is unborn. When all these three are realized as Brahman, the self becomes infinite, universal and free from the sense of agentship.


1.10

क्षरं प्रधानममृताक्षरं हरः क्षरात्मानावीशते देव एकः ।
गुणान्वयो यः फलकर्मकर्ता कृतस्य तस्यैव स चोपभोक्ता ।


M atter is perishable, but God is imperishable and immortal. He, the only God, rules over the perishable matter and individual souls. By meditating on him, by uniting with Him, and by becoming one with Him, there is cessation of all illusion in the end.


1.11

ज्ञात्वा देवं सर्वपाशापहानिः क्षीणैः वलेशेर्जन्ममृत्युप्रहाणिः ।
ततः परं ब्रह्म परं बृहन्तं यथानिकायं सर्वभूतेषु गूढम् ।


W ith the knowledge of God, all fetters fall off. With the waning of ignorance, birth and death cease. Going beyond the consciousness of the body by meditating on Him, one reaches the third state, viz., the universal lordship. All his desires are satisfied, and he becomes one without a second.


1.12

एतज्ज्ञेयं नित्यमेवात्मसंस्थं नातः परं वेदितव्यं हि किञ्चित् ।
एष देवो विश्वकर्मा महात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः ।


T his is to be known as eternally existing in one's own self. Indeed, there is nothing to be known beyond this. As a result of meditation the enjoyer, the enjoyed and the power which brings about the enjoyment - all are declared to be the three aspects of Brahman.


1.13

वह्नेर्यथा योनिगतस्य मूर्तिनर् दृश्यते नैव च लिङ्गनाशः ।
विश्वतश्चक्षुरुत विश्वतोमुखो विश्वतोबाहुरुत विश्वतस्पात् ।


F ire is not perceived in its source, the fire-stick, till it is ignited by percussion. The subtle essence of fire, nevertheless, is not absent in the stick; for fire can be obtained from the source, the fire-stick, by striking again. (The state of the Atman before and after realization). By meditating on the Pranava, the Atman is perceived manifestly in the body, (but it was there in a latent state even before realization).


1.14

स्वदेहमरणिं कृत्वा प्रणवं चोत्तरारणिम् ।
स्वभावमेके कवयो वदन्ति कालं तथान्ये परिमुह्यमानाः ।


M aking one's own body the lower piece of wood, and the Pranava the upper piece of wood, and practicing churning in the form of meditation, one should realize God as one would find out something hidden.


1.15-16

तिलेषु तैलं दधिनीव सर्पि रापः स्रोतःस्वरणीषु चाग्निः ।
ते ध्यानयोगानुगता अपश्यन् देवात्मशक्तिं स्वगुणैर्निगूढाम् ।
(16) सर्वव्यापिनमात्मानं क्षीरे सर्पिरिवार्पितम् ।
सर्वा दिश ऊर्ध्वमधश्च तिर्यक् प्रकाशयन् भ्राजते यद्वनड्वान् ।


A s oil in sesame seeds, as butter in curds, as water in underground springs, as fire in wood, even so this Self is perceived in the self. He who, by means of truthfulness, self-control and concentration, looks again and again for this Self, which is all-pervading like butter contained in milk, and which is rooted in self-knowledge and meditation - he becomes that Supreme Brahman, the destroyer of ignorance.



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