Chapter 13 How to loathe shame.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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13. 1  
Inclination and disinclination are like fear.

Bodily inclination is like fear, and bodily disinclination is also like fear.

One is afraid that great anxiety might reach the body.

貴 kuei (honour) = wei 畏 to be afraid, 若 jo (like) = 至 che to reach. One is afraid of great anxiety that may reach the body. Therefore there is fear.

What means inclination and disinclination?

He asks wherein inclination and disinclination consist. Inclination is honour. Disinclination is shame touching the body. By once more asking himself he enlightens others.

Inclination effects humiliation.

Inclination and disinclination effect humiliation and slightening.

To win it is like fear.

To win honours is the state of fear. To be in an exalted position is like approaching deep danger. Who is honoured should not dare to be haughty. Who is rich should not dare to be a spendthrift.

To lose it is like fear.

To lose means to lose inclination and to endure disinclination. Fear means the dread of the return of calamity.

This means that inclination and disinclination are like fear.

He explains the foregoing: To win it is like fear; to lose it is like fear.

What means: One is afraid that great anxiety might touch the body?

He returns once more to his question why it is to be feared that great anxiety might touch the body.

That I have great anxiety is because I have got a body.

That I have great anxiety because I have got a body [means]: Who has got a body, is anxious about its hardships and thinks of it as being hungry and cold. If one hits against feelings and causes desires to follow, one is sure to meet with calamity.

And if I have no body, what anxiety have I got?

If I am allowed to be without a body, then it is natural for me to reach Tao. If I lightly soar, rising to the clouds, wander to and from where there is no space, penetrate the spirits with Tao, what anxiety could I possibly have?

Therefore if one esteems the body when governing the empire, one may temporarily be entrusted with the empire.

This means: If a prince who esteems his own personality and despises the people wants to become ruler of the empire, he may be temporarily enthroned but will not last.

If one loves the body when governing the empire, one may be constantly entrusted with the empire.

This means: If a prince is able to love his personality without caring for himself, then he wants to become father and mother of the people. By achieving this he will become ruler of the empire. Then he may entrust his person to the elders of the people without making mistakes.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 寵辱若驚,貴大患若身。何謂寵辱若驚?寵為下,得之若驚,失之若驚,是謂寵辱若驚。何謂貴大患若身?吾所以有大患者,為吾有身,及吾無身,吾有何患?故貴以身為天下,若可寄天下;愛以身為天下,若可託天下。

《老子河上公章句·厭恥》: 寵辱若驚,貴大患若身。何謂寵辱。辱為下,得之若驚,失之若驚,是謂寵辱若驚。何謂貴大患若身。吾所以有大患者,為吾有身。及吾無身,吾何有患。故貴以身為天下者,則可寄天下,愛以身為天下,若可託天下。

《郭店·老子乙》: 寵辱若驚,貴大患若身。何謂寵辱?寵為下也。得之若驚,失之若驚,是謂寵辱驚。□□□□□若身?吾所以有大患者,為吾有身。及吾亡身,或何□□□□□□為天下,若可以託天下矣。愛以身為天下,若何以寄天下矣。

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: 龍辱若驚,貴大患若身。苛胃龍辱若驚?龍之為下,得之若驚,失□若驚,是胃龍辱若驚。何胃貴大患若身?吾所以有大患者,為吾有身也,及吾無身,有何患?故貴為身於為天下,若可以託天下矣;愛以身為天下,女何以寄天下。

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 弄辱若驚,貴大患若身。何胃弄辱若驚?弄之為下也,得之若驚,失之若驚,是胃弄辱若驚。何胃貴大患若身?吾所以有大患者,為吾有身也,及吾無身,有何患?故貴為身於為天下,若可以橐天下;□愛以身為天下,女可以寄天下矣。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

寵辱若驚,身寵亦驚,身辱亦驚。貴大患若身。貴,畏也。若,至也。 謂大患至身,故皆驚。何謂寵辱。問何謂寵,何謂辱。寵者尊榮,辱者恥辱。 及身還自問者,以曉人也。辱為下,辱為下賤。得之若驚,得寵榮驚者,處高位如臨深危也。貴不敢驕,富不敢奢。失之若驚,失者,失寵處辱也。驚者,恐禍重來也。是謂寵辱若驚。解上得之若驚,失之若驚。何謂貴大患若身。復還自問:何故畏大患至身。吾所以有大患者,為吾有身。吾所以有大患者,為吾有身。有身憂者,勤勞念其飢寒,觸情從欲,則遇禍患也。及吾無身,吾何有患。使吾無有身體,得道自然,輕舉昇雲,出入無間,與道通神,當有何患。故貴以身為天下者,則可寄天下,言人君貴其身而賤人,欲為天下主者,則可寄立,不可以久也。愛以身為天下,若可託天下。言人君能愛其身,非為己也,乃欲為萬民之父母。以此得為天下主者,乃可以託其身於萬民之上,長無咎也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Be apprehensive when receiving favour or disgrace. Regard great trouble as seriously as you regard your body.
What is meant by being apprehensive when receiving favour or disgrace? Favour is considered inferior. Be apprehensive when you receive them and also be apprehensive when you lose them. This is what is meant by being apprehensive when receiving favour or disgrace.
What does it mean to regard great trouble as seriously as you regard your body? The reason why I have great trouble is that I have a body (and am attached to it). If I have no body, What trouble could I have?
Therefore he who values the world as his body may be entrusted with the empire. He who loves the world as his body may be entrusted with the empire.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Accept honors and disgraces as surprises,
Treasure great misfortunes as the body.
Why say: "Accept honors and disgraces as surprises"?
Honors elevate (shang),
Disgraces depress (hsia).
One receives them surprised,
Loses them surprised.
Thus: "Accept honors and disgraces as surprises."
Why say: "Treasure great misfortunes as the body"?
I have great misfortunes,
Because I have a body.
If I don't have a body,
What misfortunes do I have?
Therefore treasure the body as the world,
As if the body can be entrusted to the world.
Love the body as the world,
As if the body can be entrusted to the world.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

'Favour and disgrace are like fear; fortune and disaster are like our body.'
What does it mean by 'Favour and disgrace are like fear'? Favour is in a higher place, and disgrace in a lower place. When you win them you are like being in fear, and when you lose them you are also like being in fear. So favour and disgrace are like fear.
What does it mean by 'Fortune and disaster are like our body'? We have fortune and disaster because we have a body. When we have no body, how can fortune or disaster befall us?
Therefore he who regards the world as he does the fortune of his own body can govern the world. He who loves the world as be does his own body can be entrusted with the world.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① adorer ② choyer // Chinese-French
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① to love ② to pamper ③ to spoil ④ to favor // CC-CEDICT
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① insulter ② humilier ③ humiliation ④ honte // Chinese-French
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① disgrace ② dishonor ③ to insult ④ to bring disgrace or humiliation to ⑤ to be indebted to ⑥ self-deprecating ⑦ Taiwan pr. [ru4] // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① être effrayé ② prendre ③ surprendre // Chinese-French
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① to start ② to be frightened ③ to be scared ④ alarm // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
患 // 患 // huàn // ① contracter ② attraper ③ mal ④ malheur ⑤ maladie // Chinese-French
患 // 患 // huàn // ① to suffer (from illness) ② to contract (a disease) ③ misfortune ④ trouble ⑤ danger ⑥ worry // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
何謂 // 何谓 // hé wèi // ① que signifie... ② que veut dire... // Chinese-French
何謂 // 何谓 // hé wèi // ① (literary) what is? ② what is the meaning of? // CC-CEDICT
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① adorer ② choyer // Chinese-French
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① to love ② to pamper ③ to spoil ④ to favor // CC-CEDICT
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① insulter ② humilier ③ humiliation ④ honte // Chinese-French
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① disgrace ② dishonor ③ to insult ④ to bring disgrace or humiliation to ⑤ to be indebted to ⑥ self-deprecating ⑦ Taiwan pr. [ru4] // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① être effrayé ② prendre ③ surprendre // Chinese-French
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① to start ② to be frightened ③ to be scared ④ alarm // CC-CEDICT
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① adorer ② choyer // Chinese-French
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① to love ② to pamper ③ to spoil ④ to favor // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① être effrayé ② prendre ③ surprendre // Chinese-French
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① to start ② to be frightened ③ to be scared ④ alarm // CC-CEDICT
失 // 失 // shī // ① erreur ② accident ③ perdre // Chinese-French
失 // 失 // shī // ① to lose ② to miss ③ to fail // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① être effrayé ② prendre ③ surprendre // Chinese-French
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① to start ② to be frightened ③ to be scared ④ alarm // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① adorer ② choyer // Chinese-French
寵 // 宠 // chǒng // ① to love ② to pamper ③ to spoil ④ to favor // CC-CEDICT
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① insulter ② humilier ③ humiliation ④ honte // Chinese-French
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① disgrace ② dishonor ③ to insult ④ to bring disgrace or humiliation to ⑤ to be indebted to ⑥ self-deprecating ⑦ Taiwan pr. [ru4] // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① être effrayé ② prendre ③ surprendre // Chinese-French
驚 // 惊 // jīng // ① to start ② to be frightened ③ to be scared ④ alarm // CC-CEDICT
何謂 // 何谓 // hé wèi // ① que signifie... ② que veut dire... // Chinese-French
何謂 // 何谓 // hé wèi // ① (literary) what is? ② what is the meaning of? // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
患 // 患 // huàn // ① contracter ② attraper ③ mal ④ malheur ⑤ maladie // Chinese-French
患 // 患 // huàn // ① to suffer (from illness) ② to contract (a disease) ③ misfortune ④ trouble ⑤ danger ⑥ worry // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
所以 // 所以 // suǒ yǐ // ① par conséquent ② ainsi ③ (c'est) la raison pour laquelle // Chinese-French
所以 // 所以 // suǒ yǐ // ① therefore ② as a result ③ so ④ the reason why // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
患者 // 患者 // huàn zhě // ① patient // Chinese-French
患者 // 患者 // huàn zhě // ① patient ② sufferer // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
及 // 及 // jí // ① atteindre ② parvenir à ③ et ④ ainsi que // Chinese-French
及 // 及 // jí // ① and ② to reach ③ up to ④ in time for // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① quel ? ② quoi ? // Chinese-French
何 // 何 // hé // ① surname He // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① what ② how ③ why ④ which ⑤ carry // CC-CEDICT
患 // 患 // huàn // ① contracter ② attraper ③ mal ④ malheur ⑤ maladie // Chinese-French
患 // 患 // huàn // ① to suffer (from illness) ② to contract (a disease) ③ misfortune ④ trouble ⑤ danger ⑥ worry // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
身為 // 身为 // shēn wéi // ① dans la capacité de ② comme // Chinese-French
身為 // 身为 // shēn wéi // ① in the capacity of ② as // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
可 // 可 // kě // ① pouvoir ② permettre ③ approuver ④ mais ⑤ cependant // Chinese-French
可 // 可 // kě // ① can ② may ③ able to ④ to approve ⑤ to permit ⑥ to suit ⑦ (particle used for emphasis) certainly ⑧ very // CC-CEDICT
可 // 可 // kè // ① see 可汗[ke4 han2] // CC-CEDICT
寄 // 寄 // jì // ① envoyer ② expédier ③ confier ④ déposer // Chinese-French
寄 // 寄 // jì // ① to send ② to mail ③ to entrust ④ to depend on ⑤ to attach oneself to ⑥ to live (in a house) ⑦ to lodge ⑧ foster (son etc) // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
愛 // 爱 // ài // ① amour ② aimer ③ affection ④ être fan de ⑤ adorer // Chinese-French
愛 // 爱 // ài // ① to love ② to be fond of ③ to like ④ affection ⑤ to be inclined (to do sth) ⑥ to tend to (happen) // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
身為 // 身为 // shēn wéi // ① dans la capacité de ② comme // Chinese-French
身為 // 身为 // shēn wéi // ① in the capacity of ② as // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
可 // 可 // kě // ① pouvoir ② permettre ③ approuver ④ mais ⑤ cependant // Chinese-French
可 // 可 // kě // ① can ② may ③ able to ④ to approve ⑤ to permit ⑥ to suit ⑦ (particle used for emphasis) certainly ⑧ very // CC-CEDICT
可 // 可 // kè // ① see 可汗[ke4 han2] // CC-CEDICT
託 // 托 // tuō // ① soutenir avec la main ② (confier à, charger de ③ engager, demander) // Chinese-French
託 // 托 // tuō // ① to trust ② to entrust ③ to be entrusted with ④ to act as trustee // CC-CEDICT
託 // 讬 // tuō // ① variant of 託|托[tuo1] // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Favor is invited and disgrace is feared,
As if they are a disastrous matter of life and death.
One is surprised when favor is bestowed.
One is again surprised when favor is lost
Or when one is afflicted with disgrace.
But why could they mean so much to us?
I would say I can have disasters
Only because I treasure my own life too much.
But if I live beyond my physical existence,
What disaster can matter to me?
Therefore, we should value our own life only to the extent
That we are supporting the world,
And love our physical existence only to the extent
That the world has been entrusted to us.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Favor and disgrace are enough cause for alarm, and self-importance is a great calamity that can cost one his person.
What is meant by "favor and disgrace are enough cause for alarm"?
Favor, when it is had by an inferior, is as alarming as when it is lost by him.
This is what is meant by "favor and disgrace are enough cause for alarm."
What is meant by self-importance being "a great calamity that can cost one his person"?
The reason I suffer such a great calamity is that I am bound by my own person.
When I am no longer bound by my own person,
What calamity could befall me?
Therefore, because such a one values his own person as much as anything under Heaven, he may be entrusted with all under Heaven.
Because such a one cherishes his own person as much as anything under Heaven, he may have all under Heaven rendered to his care.
(Ⅷ)


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