Chapter 15 How to display Te.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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15. 1  
Those of Yore who ably were masters

This means the superior men who attained Tao.

[where] subtle and mysterious, [thus] penetrating the dark one.

The dark one is heaven. This means: Their will was the mysterious essence of the dark one by heavenly penetration.

The depth cannot be fathomed.

Tao and Te are deep and wide. They cannot be understood and known. Inner sight is like blind, listening back is like deaf. Nobody knows what endures.

Now as it cannot be fathomed, therefore I endeavour to make it accessible.

These permutations of unity are expressed in the following sentence.

Cautious like crossing a stream in winter.

In difficult undertakings one ought to be cautious, o, like a man who crosses a stream in winter. Within one’s heart one ought to think it difficult.

Suspicious like afraid of the four neighbours.

Such as these approach quite full of fear, as if they adhered to a rule, like somebody who transgresses the law and is afraid of his four neighbours whom he knows.

Reticent like a guest.

Like a guest who stands in awe of the master of the house, thus being reticent without doing anything.

Dissolving like ice that is going to melt.

What dissolves, breaks up. What melts, vanishes. By doing away with the feelings and getting rid of the desires, one daily becomes more empty.

Simple like unworked wood.

What is simple is material and firm. The form of unworked wood is not yet carved. Within one ought to take care of the spirits, outwards one ought not to be pretentious.

Empty like a valley.

Emptiness is wide and vast. A valley is empty, without Te and merit and fame, without a place. One does not grasp its existence.

Muddy, o, like turbid water.

Muddiness keeps its original purity. Turbid water is not so bright. One ought to unite with the crowd and not to keep apart.

Turbid water by being quieted gradually becomes clear.

To quiet means to bring to a standstill. If water is turbid, one should bring it to a standstill and quiet it, and gradually it will become clear of itself.

The quiet by moving it gradually becomes quickened.

Who is able to quicken the quiet slowly and gradually?

Who keeps this Tao does not want fulness.

Who keeps this Tao of gradual living wants no luxurious fulness.

Now who is without fulness, is thereby able to become worn out without being newly mended.

Who is now a man without fulness is able to keep his outwornness without being in need of new mending. Who is outworn hides the splendour, who is newly mended honours merit and glory.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 古之善為士者,微妙玄通,深不可識。夫唯不可識,故強為之容。豫兮若冬涉川;猶兮若畏四鄰;儼兮其若容;渙兮若冰之將釋;敦兮其若樸;曠兮其若谷;混兮其若濁;孰能濁以靜之徐清?孰能安以久動之徐生?保此道者,不欲盈。夫唯不盈,故能蔽不新成。

《老子河上公章句·顯德》: 古之善為士者,微妙玄通,深不可識。夫唯不可識,故強為之容。與兮若冬涉川;猶兮若畏四鄰;儼兮其若容;渙兮若冰之將釋,敦兮其若朴,曠兮其若谷;渾兮其若濁。孰能濁以靜之,徐清。孰能安以久動之,徐生。保此道者,不欲盈。夫惟不盈,故能蔽不新成。

《郭店·老子甲》: 古之善為士者,必微妙玄達,深不可識,是以為之頌:豫乎若冬涉川,猶乎其若畏四鄰,敢乎其若客,渙乎其若釋,屯乎其若樸,沌乎其若濁。孰能濁以靜者,將徐清。孰能牝以主者,將徐生。保此道者不欲尚浧。

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: □□□□□□□□□□,深不可志。夫唯不可志,故強為之容,曰:與呵其若冬□□□□□□畏四□,□呵其若客,浼呵其若淩澤,□呵其若幄春□□□□□□□若浴。濁而情之,余清。女以重之,余生。葆此道,不欲盈。夫唯不欲□□以能□□□成。

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 古之屳為道者,微眇玄達,深不可志。夫唯不可志,故強為之容,曰:與呵其若冬涉水,猷呵其若畏四𠳵,嚴呵其若客,浼呵其若淩澤,沌呵其若樸,湷呵其若濁,莊呵其若浴。濁而靜之,徐清。女以重之,徐生。葆此道□□欲盈。是以能敝而不成。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

古之善為士者,謂得道之君也。微妙玄通,玄,天也。 言其志節玄妙,精與天通也。深不可識。道德深遠,不可識知,內視若盲,反聽若聾,莫知所長。夫唯不可識,故強為之容。謂下句也。與兮若冬涉川;舉事輒加重慎與。 與兮若冬涉川,心難之也。猶兮若畏四鄰;其進退猶猶如拘制,若人犯法,畏四鄰知之也。儼兮其若容;如客畏主人,儼然無所造作也。渙兮若冰之將釋,渙者,解散。釋者,消亡。 除情去欲,日以空虛。敦兮其若朴,敦者,質厚。朴者,形未分。 內守精神,外無文采也。曠兮其若谷;曠者,寬大。谷者,空虛。 不有德功名,無所不包也。渾兮其若濁。渾者,守本真,濁者,不照然。 與眾合同,不自專也。孰能濁以靜之,徐清。孰,誰也。 誰能知水之濁止而靜之,徐徐自清也。孰能安以久動之,徐生。誰能安靜以久,徐徐以長生也。保此道者,不欲盈。保此徐生之道,不欲奢泰盈溢。夫惟不盈,故能蔽不新成。夫為不盈滿之人,能守蔽不為新成。 蔽者,匿光榮也。新成者,貴功名。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Of old those who were the best rulers were subtly mysterious and profoundly penetrating; Too deep to comprehend.
And because they cannot be comprehended, I can only describe them arbitrarily: Cautious, like crossing a frozen stream in the winter, Being at a loss, like one fearing danger on all sides, Reserved, like one visiting,
Supple and pliant, like ice about to melt. Genuine, like a piece of uncarved wood, Open and broad, like a valley, Merged and undifferentiated, like muddy water.
Who can make muddy water gradually clear through tranquillity? Who can make the still gradually come to life through activity?
He who embraces this Tao does not want to fill himself to overflowing. It is precisely because there is no overflowing that he is beyond wearing out and renewal.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Those in the past who were good at practicing Tao,
Were subtle, mysterious, dark, penetrating (wei miao yüan t'ung),
Deep and unrecognizable.
Because they were unrecognizable,
I am forced to describe their appearance (yung).
Careful, like crossing a river in winter,
Hesitating, like fearing neighbors on four sides,
Reverent, like being guests,
Dissolving, like ice beginning to melt,
Thick, like uncarved wood,
Open, like a valley,
Chaotic (hun), like murky (cho) water.
What can stop the murkiness?
Quieting (ching) down, gradually it clarifies (ch'ing).
What can keep still for long?
Moving, gradually it stirs into life.
Those who keep this Tao,
Do not want to be filled to the full (ying).
Because they are not full,
They can renew (hsin) themselves before being worn out (pi).
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

In old times the perfect man of Tao was subtle, penetrating and so profound that he can hardly be understood.
Because he cannot be understood, I shall endeavour to picture him: He is cautious, like one who crosses a stream in winter; He is hesitating, like one who fears his neighbours; He is modest, like one who is a guest;
He is yielding, like ice that is going to melt; He is simple, like wood that is not yet wrought; He is vacant, like valleys that are hollow; He is dim, like water that is turbid.
Who is able to purify the dark till it becomes slowly light? Who is able to calm the turbid till it slowly clears? Who is able to quicken the stagnant till it slowly makes progress?
He who follows these principles does not desire fullness. Because he is not full, therefore when he becomes decayed he can renew.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancien ② antique // Chinese-French
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancient ② old ③ paleo- // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
士 // 士 // shì // ① lettré ② soldat // Chinese-French
士 // 士 // shì // ① surname Shi // CC-CEDICT
士 // 士 // shì // ① member of the senior ministerial class (old) ② scholar (old) ③ bachelor ④ honorific ⑤ soldier ⑥ noncommissioned officer ⑦ specialist worker // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
微妙 // 微妙 // wēi miào // ① subtil ② délicat // Chinese-French
微妙 // 微妙 // wēi miào // ① subtle // CC-CEDICT
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① mystérieux ② obscur ③ incroyable // Chinese-French
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① black ② mysterious // CC-CEDICT
通 // 通 // tōng // ① passer librement ② déboucher ③ mener à ④ communiquer ⑤ informer ⑥ connaître ⑦ comprendre à fond ⑧ logique ⑨ commun ⑩ tout ⑪ entier // Chinese-French
通 // 通 // tōng // ① to go through ② to know well ③ (suffix) expert ④ to connect ⑤ to communicate ⑥ open ⑦ to clear ⑧ classifier for letters, telegrams, phone calls etc // CC-CEDICT
通 // 通 // tòng // ① classifier for an activity, taken in its entirety (tirade of abuse, stint of music playing, bout of drinking etc) // CC-CEDICT
深 // 深 // shēn // ① profond ② difficile ③ intime ④ étroit ⑤ foncé ⑥ très ⑦ profondément ⑧ tard // Chinese-French
深 // 深 // shēn // ① deep ② depth ③ deeply ④ (of a color) dark ⑤ deep ⑥ rich // CC-CEDICT
㴱 // 深 // shēn // ① old variant of 深[shen1] // CC-CEDICT
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① ne pas devoir ② ne pas pouvoir ③ pas // Chinese-French
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① cannot ② should not ③ must not // CC-CEDICT
識 // 识 // shí // ① connaître ② connaissance ③ clairvoyance // Chinese-French
識 // 识 // shí // ① to know ② knowledge ③ Taiwan pr. [shi4] // CC-CEDICT
識 // 识 // zhì // ① se souvenir ② inscrire, annales // Chinese-French
識 // 识 // zhì // ① to record ② to write a footnote // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① ne pas devoir ② ne pas pouvoir ③ pas // Chinese-French
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① cannot ② should not ③ must not // CC-CEDICT
識 // 识 // shí // ① connaître ② connaissance ③ clairvoyance // Chinese-French
識 // 识 // shí // ① to know ② knowledge ③ Taiwan pr. [shi4] // CC-CEDICT
識 // 识 // zhì // ① se souvenir ② inscrire, annales // Chinese-French
識 // 识 // zhì // ① to record ② to write a footnote // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // qiáng // ① fort ② puissant ③ de force // Chinese-French
強 // 强 // qiáng // ① surname Qiang // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // qiáng // ① strong ② powerful ③ better ④ slightly more than ⑤ vigorous ⑥ violent ⑦ best in their category, e.g. see 百強|百强[bai3 qiang2] // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // qiǎng // ① faire un effort ② forcer // Chinese-French
強 // 强 // qiǎng // ① to force ② to compel ③ to strive ④ to make an effort // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // jiàng // ① obstiné ② têtu ③ inflexible // Chinese-French
強 // 强 // jiàng // ① stubborn ② unyielding // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
容 // 容 // róng // ① expression ② mine ③ aspect ④ contenir ⑤ tolérer ⑥ permettre ⑦ laisser // Chinese-French
容 // 容 // róng // ① surname Rong // CC-CEDICT
容 // 容 // róng // ① to hold ② to contain ③ to allow ④ to tolerate ⑤ appearance ⑥ look ⑦ countenance // CC-CEDICT
豫 // 豫 // yù // ① (autre nom de la province du Henan) ② content ③ gai ④ à l'aise // Chinese-French
豫 // 豫 // yù // ① abbr. for Henan province 河南 in central China // CC-CEDICT
豫 // 豫 // yù // ① happy ② carefree ③ at one's ease ④ variant of 預|预[yu4] ⑤ old variant of 與|与[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
冬 // 冬 // dōng // ① winter // CC-CEDICT
鼕 // 冬 // dōng // ① hiver // Chinese-French
鼕 // 冬 // dōng // ① surname Dong // CC-CEDICT
鼕 // 冬 // dōng // ① (onom.) beating a drum ② rat-a-tat // CC-CEDICT
涉 // 涉 // shè // ① traverser ② passer par ③ concerner // Chinese-French
涉 // 涉 // shè // ① to wade ② to be involved ③ to concern ④ to experience ⑤ to enter (classical) // CC-CEDICT
川 // 川 // chuān // ① fleuve ② rivière // Chinese-French
川 // 川 // chuān // ① abbr. for Sichuan Province 四川[Si4 chuan1] in southwest China // CC-CEDICT
川 // 川 // chuān // ① river ② creek ③ plain ④ an area of level country // CC-CEDICT
猶 // 犹 // yóu // ① comme ② encore // Chinese-French
猶 // 犹 // yóu // ① as if ② (just) like ③ just as ④ still ⑤ yet // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
畏 // 畏 // wèi // ① craindre // Chinese-French
畏 // 畏 // wèi // ① to fear // CC-CEDICT
四鄰 // 四邻 // sì lín // ① tout le voisinage ② les pays voisins // Chinese-French
四鄰 // 四邻 // sì lín // ① one's nearest neighbors // CC-CEDICT
儼 // 俨 // yǎn // ① gravité ② comme si // Chinese-French
儼 // 俨 // yǎn // ① majestic ② dignified // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
容 // 容 // róng // ① expression ② mine ③ aspect ④ contenir ⑤ tolérer ⑥ permettre ⑦ laisser // Chinese-French
容 // 容 // róng // ① surname Rong // CC-CEDICT
容 // 容 // róng // ① to hold ② to contain ③ to allow ④ to tolerate ⑤ appearance ⑥ look ⑦ countenance // CC-CEDICT
渙 // 涣 // huàn // ① se disperser ② se dissiper ③ répandre ④ disparaître // Chinese-French
渙 // 涣 // huàn // ① to dissipate ② to dissolve // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
冰 // 冰 // bīng // ① glace // Chinese-French
冰 // 冰 // bīng // ① ice ② CL:塊|块[kuai4] ③ methamphetamine (slang) // CC-CEDICT
氷 // 冰 // bīng // ① variant of 冰[bing1] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
釋 // 释 // shì // ① expliquer ② libérer ③ bouddhisme // Chinese-French
釋 // 释 // shì // ① to explain ② to release ③ Buddha (abbr. for 釋迦牟尼|释迦牟尼[Shi4 jia1 mou2 ni2]) ④ Buddhism // CC-CEDICT
敦 // 敦 // dūn // ① sincère // Chinese-French
敦 // 敦 // dūn // ① kindhearted ② place name // CC-CEDICT
㪟 // 敦 // dūn // ① variant of 敦[dun1] // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
樸 // 朴 // pǔ // ① simple // Chinese-French
樸 // 朴 // pǔ // ① plain and simple ② Taiwan pr. [pu2] // CC-CEDICT
曠 // 旷 // kuàng // ① manquer ② négliger ③ vaste ④ étendu ⑤ desert // Chinese-French
曠 // 旷 // kuàng // ① to neglect ② to skip (class or work) ③ to waste (time) ④ vast ⑤ loose-fitting // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① valley // CC-CEDICT
穀 // 谷 // gǔ // ① grain ② corn // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // yù // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
混 // 混 // hùn // ① confondre ② mêler ③ faire passer pour ④ s'infiltrer ⑤ gagner sa vie tant bien que mal // Chinese-French
混 // 混 // hùn // ① to mix ② to mingle ③ muddled ④ to drift along ⑤ to muddle along ⑥ to pass for ⑦ to get along with sb ⑧ thoughtless ⑨ reckless // CC-CEDICT
混 // 混 // hún // ① salaud ② canaille // Chinese-French
混 // 混 // hún // ① confused ② dirty ③ to mix ④ muddy ⑤ variant of 渾|浑[hun2] // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
濁 // 浊 // zhuó // ① trouble ② rauque // Chinese-French
濁 // 浊 // zhuó // ① turbid ② muddy ③ impure // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
濁 // 浊 // zhuó // ① trouble ② rauque // Chinese-French
濁 // 浊 // zhuó // ① turbid ② muddy ③ impure // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① calme ② silencieux // Chinese-French
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① still ② calm ③ quiet ④ not moving // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
徐 // 徐 // xú // ① lentement // Chinese-French
徐 // 徐 // xú // ① surname Xu // CC-CEDICT
徐 // 徐 // xú // ① slowly ② gently // CC-CEDICT
清 // 清 // qīng // ① clair ② pur ③ distinct ④ net ⑤ liquider // Chinese-French
清 // 清 // qīng // ① Qing or Ch'ing dynasty of Imperial China (1644-1911) ② surname Qing // CC-CEDICT
清 // 清 // qīng // ① clear ② distinct ③ quiet ④ just and honest ⑤ pure ⑥ to settle or clear up ⑦ to clean up or purge // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
安 // 安 // ān // ① paix ② calme ③ sécurité ④ calmer ⑤ rassurer ⑥ installer ⑦ pacifier ⑧ poser ⑨ être satisfait de ⑩ calme ⑪ paisible // Chinese-French
安 // 安 // ān // ① surname An // CC-CEDICT
安 // 安 // ān // ① content ② calm ③ still ④ quiet ⑤ safe ⑥ secure ⑦ in good health ⑧ to find a place for ⑨ to install ⑩ to fix ⑪ to fit ⑫ to bring (a charge against sb) ⑬ to pacify ⑭ to harbor (good intentions) ⑮ security ⑯ safety ⑰ peace ⑱ ampere // CC-CEDICT
安东乃特 // 安 // 索菲 [ān suǒ fēi // ① Anne Sophie // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
久 // 久 // jiǔ // ① longtemps ② de longue date // Chinese-French
久 // 久 // jiǔ // ① (long) time ② (long) duration of time // CC-CEDICT
動 // 动 // dòng // ① bouger ② se mouvoir ③ toucher à ④ déplacer ⑤ agir ⑥ se mettre en action // Chinese-French
動 // 动 // dòng // ① (of sth) to move ② to set in movement ③ to displace ④ to touch ⑤ to make use of ⑥ to stir (emotions) ⑦ to alter ⑧ abbr. for 動詞|动词[dong4 ci2], verb // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
徐 // 徐 // xú // ① lentement // Chinese-French
徐 // 徐 // xú // ① surname Xu // CC-CEDICT
徐 // 徐 // xú // ① slowly ② gently // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
保 // 保 // bǎo // ① défendre ② protéger ③ entretenir ④ conserver ⑤ garantir ⑥ maintenir ⑦ garder ⑧ assurer // Chinese-French
保 // 保 // bǎo // ① Bulgaria ② Bulgarian ③ abbr. for 保加利亞|保加利亚[Bao3 jia1 li4 ya4] // CC-CEDICT
保 // 保 // bǎo // ① to defend ② to protect ③ to keep ④ to guarantee ⑤ to ensure // CC-CEDICT
此道 // 此道 // cǐ dào // ① such matters ② things like this ③ this line of work ④ this pursuit ⑤ this hobby ⑥ this endeavor // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① plein ② abondant ③ être plein (rempli, comble) de ④ dépasser ⑤ excéder ⑥ avoir un surplus de ⑦ avoir en excédent // Chinese-French
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① full ② filled ③ surplus // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① plein ② abondant ③ être plein (rempli, comble) de ④ dépasser ⑤ excéder ⑥ avoir un surplus de ⑦ avoir en excédent // Chinese-French
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① full ② filled ③ surplus // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
蔽 // 蔽 // bì // ① couvrir ② abriter // Chinese-French
蔽 // 蔽 // bì // ① to cover ② to shield ③ to screen ④ to conceal // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
新 // 新 // xīn // ① nouveau ② neuf ③ récent ④ actuel ⑤ nouvellement ⑥ récemment // Chinese-French
新 // 新 // xīn // ① abbr. for Xinjiang 新疆[Xin1 jiang1] or Singapore 新加坡[Xin1 jia1 po1] ② surname Xin // CC-CEDICT
新 // 新 // xīn // ① new ② newly ③ meso- (chemistry) // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The ancient wise ones seemed unattainably profound.
Since they were such, I can describe them only this way:
Hesitant as if they were crossing a winter river;
Inhibited as if they were afraid of their neighbors;
Undisciplined like melting ice on flowing water;
Simple-minded like a piece of rough plank;
Void like a vast-spreading empty valley;
And unenlightened like a muddled pool.
If anyone keeps the muddled state still,
It will gradually clear up.
If anyone keeps it still for long,
There will gradually be new production.
One who keeps this Way will not try to become filled.
Keeping unfilled, one is always ready for new successes.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

In antiquity, he who was good at being a leader was perfectly in step with mystery in all its subtlety and profundity; so recondite was he that it was impossible to understand him.
Now, because he defies understanding, all I can do is force a description of what he was like: he seemed hesitant, as one might be when fording a river in winter.
He seemed tentative, as one who fears his neighbors on all four sides.
He seemed solemn, oh, as if he were the guest.
He seemed yielding, oh, just like ice when about to break up.
He seemed solid and sturdy, oh, just like an uncarved block of wood.
He seemed empty and receptive, oh, just like a valley.
He seemed amorphous, oh, just like murky water.
Who can take his turbidity and, by stilling it, gradually become clear?
Who can take his quietude and, by stirring it long, gradually come alive?
One who keeps this Dao does not wish to be filled.
For it is only by not getting filled that one can avoid having the cover remade.
(Ⅷ)


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