Chapter 2 How to cultivate the personality.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


2. 1  
If all in the world know that beauty is beautiful,

Beauty developing of itself makes this apparent,

then there is ugliness.

There is danger and loss.

If all know that goodness is good,

If there is merit and glory,

then badness exists.

That for which men contend.

Thus existence and non-existence generate each other.

By beholding existence it becomes non-existence.

Heaviness and lightness perfect each other.

By beholding heaviness it becomes lightness.

Longness and shortness form each other.

By beholding shortness it becomes longness.

Highness and lowness incline towards each other.

By beholding highness it becomes lowness.

Sound and voice harmonize with each other.

If the superior sings, the inferior is sure to keep in tune with him.

Before and afterwards follow each other.

If the superior advances, the inferior is sure to follow.

Therefore the saint remains in the business of non-action.

He governs through Tao.

He follows the doctrine of not-speaking.

Through his personality he is master and leader.

All things rise,

Everything is set in motion,

and they are not rejected.

They are not rejected and do not rebel.

He produces without owning.

The pristine breath produces all things without owning them.

He acts and puts no stress on it.

This is what Tao is doing. It puts no stress on anything and does not look from afar for recompense.

Merit is accomplished, and he does not stay with it.

After having perfected the accomplishing of merit, he retires. He does not stay in his place.

Now because he does not stay with it,

Now as [his] merit is accomplished, he does not stay in his place,

thereby he does not flee.

Luck and Te are constantly present and do not leave his person. This means: If one does not advance, one cannot be followed; if one does not talk, one cannot be looked through. The six preceding sentences therefore contain highness and lowness, longness and shortness. If you open one source, the hundred causes arise below. The changes of the hundred causes are sure to set confusion in motion.

- Chinese :

道德經》: 天下皆知美之為美,斯惡已。皆知善之為善,斯不善已。故有無相生,難易相成,長短相較,高下相傾,音聲相和,前後相隨。是以聖人處無為之事,行不言之教;萬物作焉而不辭,生而不有。為而不恃,功成而弗居。夫唯弗居,是以不去。

《老子河上公章句·養身》: 天下皆知美之為美,斯惡已;皆知善之為善,斯不善已。故有無相生,難易相成,長短相較,高下相傾,音聲相和,前後相隨。是以聖人處無為之事,行不言之教,萬物作焉而不辭,生而不有,為而不恃,功成而弗居。夫唯弗居,是以不去。

《郭店·老子甲》: 天下皆知美之為美也,惡已;皆知善,此斯不善已。有亡之相生也,難易之相成也,長短之相形也,高下之相呈也,音聲之相和也,先後之相隨也。是以聖人居亡為之事,行不言之教。萬物作而弗治也,為而弗志也,成而弗居。夫唯弗居也,是以弗去也。

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: 天下皆知美為美,惡已。皆知善,斯不善矣。有無之相生也,難易之相成也,長短之相刑也,高下之相盈也,意聲之相和也,先後之相隋恆也。是以聲人居無為之事,行□□□□□□□□□□也,為而弗志也,成功而弗居也。夫唯居,是以弗去。

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 天下皆知美之為美,亞已。皆知善,斯不善矣。□□□□生也,難易之相成也,長短之相刑也,高下之相盈也,音聲之相和也,先後之相隋恆也。是以聖人居無為之事,行不言之教;萬物昔而弗始,為而弗侍也,成功而弗居也,夫唯弗居,是以弗去。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

天下皆知美之為美,自揚己美,使彰顯也。斯惡已;有危亡也。皆知善之為善,有功名也。斯不善已。人所爭也。故有無相生,見有而為無也。難易相成,見難而為易也。長短相較,見短而為長也。高下相傾,見高而為下也。音聲相和,上唱下必和也。前後相隨。上行下必隨也。是以聖人處無為之事,以道治也。行不言之教,以身師導之也。萬物作焉各自動也。而不辭,不辭謝而逆止。生而不有,元氣生萬物而不有為而不恃,道所施為,不恃望其報也。功成而弗居。功成事就,退避不居其位。夫唯弗居,夫惟功成不居其位。是以不去。福德常在,不去其身也。此言不行不可隨,不言不可知疾。 上六句有高下長短,君開一源,下生百端,百端之變,無不動亂。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

When all the people of the world know beauty as beauty, There arises the recognition of ugliness.
When they all know the good as good, There arises the recognition of evil.
Therefore: Being and non-being produce each other; Difficult and easy complete each other; Long and short contrast each other;
High and low distinguish each other; Sound and voice harmonize each other; Front and behind accompany each other.
Therefore the sage manages affairs without action And spreads doctrines without words.

All things arise, and he does not turn away from them. He produces them but does not take possession of them.
He acts but does not rely on his own ability. He accomplishes his task but does not claim credit for it. It is precisely because he does not claim credit that his accomplishment remains with him.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

When all under heaven know beauty (mei) as beauty,
There is then ugliness (o);
When all know the good (shan) good,
There is then the not good (pu shan).
Therefore being and non-being give rise to each other,
The difficult and easy complement each other,
The long and short shape each other,
The high and low lean on each other,
Voices and instruments harmonize with one another,
The front and rear follow upon each other.
Therefore the sage manages affairs without action,
Carries out (hsing) teaching without speech (yen).
Ten thousand things arise and he does not initiate them,
They come to be and he claims no possession (yu) of them,
He works (wei) without holding on,
Accomplishes (ch'eng) without claiming merit.
Because he does not claim merit,
His merit does not go away.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

When all in the world understand beauty to be beautiful, then ugliness exists.
When all understand goodness to be good, then evil exists.
Thus existence suggests non-existence; Easy gives rise to difficult; Short is derived from long by comparison;
Low is distinguished from high by position; Resonance harmonizes sound; After follows before.
Therefore, the Sage carries on his business without action, and gives his teaching without words.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① tout ② tous // Chinese-French
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① all ② each and every ③ in all cases // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beau, élégant ② excellent ③ louer ④ abréviation d'Amérique // Chinese-French
美 // 美 // měi // ① the Americas ② abbr. for 美洲[Mei3 zhou1] ③ USA ④ abbr. for 美國|美国[Mei3 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beautiful ② very satisfactory ③ good ④ to beautify ⑤ to be pleased with oneself // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beau, élégant ② excellent ③ louer ④ abréviation d'Amérique // Chinese-French
美 // 美 // měi // ① the Americas ② abbr. for 美洲[Mei3 zhou1] ③ USA ④ abbr. for 美國|美国[Mei3 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beautiful ② very satisfactory ③ good ④ to beautify ⑤ to be pleased with oneself // CC-CEDICT
斯 // 斯 // sī // ① ce ② cet ③ ces // Chinese-French
斯 // 斯 // sī // ① Slovakia ② Slovak ③ abbr. for 斯洛伐克[Si1 luo4 fa2 ke4] // CC-CEDICT
斯 // 斯 // sī // ① (phonetic) ② this // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // è // ① mauvais ② méchant ③ vicieux // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // è // ① evil ② fierce ③ vicious ④ ugly ⑤ coarse ⑥ to harm // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① mal // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① see 惡心|恶心[e3 xin1] // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① haïr ② détestable // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① to hate ② to loathe ③ ashamed ④ to fear ⑤ to slander // CC-CEDICT
已 // 已 // yǐ // ① cesser ② finir ③ déjà // Chinese-French
已 // 已 // yǐ // ① already ② to stop ③ then ④ afterwards // CC-CEDICT
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① tout ② tous // Chinese-French
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① all ② each and every ③ in all cases // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
斯 // 斯 // sī // ① ce ② cet ③ ces // Chinese-French
斯 // 斯 // sī // ① Slovakia ② Slovak ③ abbr. for 斯洛伐克[Si1 luo4 fa2 ke4] // CC-CEDICT
斯 // 斯 // sī // ① (phonetic) ② this // CC-CEDICT
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① mauvais ② méchant // Chinese-French
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① bad ② ill ③ not good at ④ not to be pooh-poohed ⑤ quite impressive // CC-CEDICT
已 // 已 // yǐ // ① cesser ② finir ③ déjà // Chinese-French
已 // 已 // yǐ // ① already ② to stop ③ then ④ afterwards // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
有無 // 有无 // yǒu wú // ① avoir ou non ② excédent et déficit ③ corporel et incorporel // Chinese-French
有無 // 有无 // yǒu wú // ① to have or have not ② surplus and shortfall ③ tangible and intangible ④ corporeal and incorporeal // CC-CEDICT
相生 // 相生 // xiāng shēng // ① engendrer un autre // Chinese-French
相生 // 相生 // xiāng shēng // ① to engender one another // CC-CEDICT
難易 // 难易 // nán yì // ① difficulté ② degré de difficulté ou de facilité // Chinese-French
難易 // 难易 // nán yì // ① difficulty ② degree of difficulty or ease // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
長短 // 长短 // cháng duǎn // ① longueur ② le bien et le mal ③ accident // Chinese-French
長短 // 长短 // cháng duǎn // ① length ② duration ③ accident ④ right and wrong ⑤ good and bad ⑥ long and short // CC-CEDICT
相較 // 相较 // xiāng jiào // ① to compare // CC-CEDICT
高下 // 高下 // gāo xià // ① relative superiority (better or worse, stronger or weaker, above or below etc) // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
傾 // 倾 // qīng // ① incliner ② tendre à ③ s'effondrer ④ renverser ⑤ faire de son mieux ⑥ tendance ⑦ inclination // Chinese-French
傾 // 倾 // qīng // ① to overturn ② to collapse ③ to lean ④ to tend ⑤ to incline ⑥ to pour out // CC-CEDICT
音 // 音 // yīn // ① son ② bruit ③ tonalité ④ note (musique) // Chinese-French
音 // 音 // yīn // ① sound ② noise ③ note (of musical scale) ④ tone ⑤ news ⑥ syllable ⑦ reading (phonetic value of a character) // CC-CEDICT
聲 // 声 // shēng // ① son ② bruit ③ voix ④ ton // Chinese-French
聲 // 声 // shēng // ① sound ② voice ③ tone ④ noise ⑤ classifier for sounds // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hé // ① et ② avec ③ harmonie ④ paix ⑤ union // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // hé // ① surname He ② Japanese (food, clothes etc) // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hé // "① and ② together with ③ with ④ sum ⑤ union ⑥ peace ⑦ harmony ⑧ Taiwan pr. [han4] when it means ""and"" or ""with""" // CC-CEDICT
咊 // 和 // hé // ① old variant of 和[he2] // CC-CEDICT
龢 // 和 // hé // ① old variant of 和[he2] ② harmonious // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hè // ① poésie // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // hè // ① to compose a poem in reply (to sb's poem) using the same rhyme sequence ② to join in the singing ③ to chime in with others // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hú // ① to complete a set in mahjong or playing cards // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // huó // ① doux // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // huó // ① to combine a powdery substance (flour, plaster etc) with water ② Taiwan pr. [huo4] // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // huò // ① pétrir ② mêler // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // huò // ① to mix (ingredients) together ② to blend ③ classifier for rinses of clothes ④ classifier for boilings of medicinal herbs // CC-CEDICT
前後 // 前后 // qián hòu // ① avant et après ② devant et derrière ③ depuis le début jusqu'à la fin ④ dès le commencement jusqu'à la fin ⑤ en tout ⑥ environ ⑦ autour d // Chinese-French
前後 // 前后 // qián hòu // ① around ② from beginning to end ③ all around ④ front and rear // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
隨 // 随 // suí // ① au fur et à mesure ② suivre ③ se conformer à ④ permettre // Chinese-French
隨 // 随 // suí // ① surname Sui // CC-CEDICT
隨 // 随 // suí // ① to follow ② to comply with ③ varying according to... ④ to allow ⑤ subsequently // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
無為 // 无为 // wú wéi // ① Wuwei county in Chaohu 巢湖[Chao2 hu2], Anhui // CC-CEDICT
無為 // 无为 // wú wéi // ① the Daoist doctrine of inaction ② let things take their own course ③ laissez-faire // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
事 // 事 // shì // ① être occupé ② être engagé dans ③ affaire ④ chose ⑤ accident ⑥ trouble ⑦ travail ⑧ responsabilité ⑨ implication ⑩ empêtrement // Chinese-French
事 // 事 // shì // ① matter ② thing ③ item ④ work ⑤ affair ⑥ CL:件[jian4],樁|桩[zhuang1],回[hui2] // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xíng // ① marcher ② agir ③ faire ④ pratiquer ⑤ appliquer ⑥ d'accord ⑦ c'est bon ! ⑧ chacun des éléments : l’eau, le feu, le bois, le métal, la terre ⑨ bagages ⑩ quitter la maison ⑪ se marier (pour une fille) ⑫ ballade // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // xíng // ① to walk ② to go ③ to travel ④ a visit ⑤ temporary ⑥ makeshift ⑦ current ⑧ in circulation ⑨ to do ⑩ to perform ⑪ capable ⑫ competent ⑬ effective ⑭ all right ⑮ OK! ⑯ will do ⑰ behavior ⑱ conduct ⑲ Taiwan pr. [xing4] for the behavior-conduct sense // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // háng // ① classe ② sorte ③ rang ④ maison de commerce // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // háng // ① a row ② series ③ age order (of brothers) ④ profession ⑤ professional ⑥ relating to company // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xìng // ① action // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
言 // 言 // yán // ① dire ② mot ③ parole ④ opinion ⑤ propos // Chinese-French
言 // 言 // yán // ① words ② speech ③ to say ④ to talk // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiào // ① enseigner ② apprendre qch à qqn ③ religion ④ faire faire ⑤ ordonner // Chinese-French
教 // 教 // jiào // ① surname Jiao // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiào // ① religion ② teaching ③ to make ④ to cause ⑤ to tell // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiāo // ① enseigner ② apprendre qch à qqn // Chinese-French
教 // 教 // jiāo // ① to teach // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
作 // 作 // zuò // ① faire ② apparaître ③ rédiger ④ ouvrage ⑤ oeuvre ⑥ considérer comme // Chinese-French
作 // 作 // zuò // ① to do ② to grow ③ to write or compose ④ to pretend ⑤ to regard as ⑥ to feel ⑦ writings or works // CC-CEDICT
作 // 作 // zuō // ① worker ② workshop ③ (slang) troublesome ④ high-maintenance (person) // CC-CEDICT
焉 // 焉 // yān // ① (employé à la fin d'une phrase) ② comment ③ seulement ④ ici ⑤ cela // Chinese-French
焉 // 焉 // yān // ① where ② how // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
辭 // 辞 // cí // ① terme ② parole ③ prendre congé de qqn ④ démissionner ⑤ licencier ⑥ éviter ⑦ se soustraire // Chinese-French
辭 // 辞 // cí // ① to resign ② to dismiss ③ to decline ④ to take leave ⑤ ballad (archaic poetic genre) ⑥ variant of 詞|词[ci2] // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
恃 // 恃 // shì // ① s'appuyer sur ② compter sur // Chinese-French
恃 // 恃 // shì // ① to rely on ② mother (formal) // CC-CEDICT
功 // 功 // gōng // ① mérite, services ② effort, travail // Chinese-French
功 // 功 // gōng // ① meritorious deed or service ② achievement ③ result ④ service ⑤ accomplishment ⑥ work (physics) // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
弗 // 弗 // fú // ① ne pas ② non // Chinese-French
弗 // 弗 // fú // ① not // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
弗 // 弗 // fú // ① ne pas ② non // Chinese-French
弗 // 弗 // fú // ① not // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
去 // 去 // qù // ① aller ② quitter ③ enlever (placé après un verbe pour marquer la direction ou la destination) vers ④ dans la direction de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
去 // 去 // qù // ① to go ② to go to (a place) ③ (of a time etc) last ④ just passed ⑤ to send ⑥ to remove ⑦ to get rid of ⑧ to reduce ⑨ to be apart from in space or time ⑩ to die (euphemism) ⑪ to play (a part) ⑫ (when used either before or after a verb) to go in order to do sth ⑬ (after a verb of motion indicates movement away from the speaker) ⑭ (used after certain verbs to indicate detachment or separation) // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

We know beauty because there is ugliness.
We know goodness because there are evils.
Therefore, being and non-being are relative to each other
As are what is difficult and what is easy;
What is long and what is short;
What is high and what is low;
What sounds and what resonates;
And what precedes and what follows.
The wise do good by doing nothing
And teach well by teaching nothing.
Things work without intruding on the natural process,
Develop and produce without desiring willfully,
And are successful without feeling success.
Only those who possess nothing
Will lose nothing.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Once all under Heaven knew beauty as "beauty"; at that moment "ugliness" was already there.
Once all knew goodness as "goodness"; at that moment "not good" was already there.
Thus it is that presence and absence generate each other;
difficulty and ease determine the sense of the other;
long and short give proportion to the other;
highs and lows are a matter of relative inclination;
instrumental sounds and voice tones depend on one other for harmony;
and before and after result from their relative places in a sequence.
Therefore, the sage [sheng] tends to matters without conscious effort
And practices the teaching that is not expressed in words.
The myriad folk model their behavior on him, yet he does not tell them to do so.
He gives them life, yet he possesses them not.
He acts, yet they do not depend on him.
And he achieves success yet takes no pride in it.
It is just because he is not proprietary that he does not lose it.
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

2 







Home