Chapter 20 How to differ from the vulgar.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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20. 1  
Cut off the learned.

Cut off the learned because they are insincere and do not agree with the science of Tao.

There will be no sorrow.

If the floating blossoms are taken away, then there will be no sorrow.

Yes and Yea, how little do they differ!

Both are suited for answers, and how little do they differ! In morbid times, reality is despised and outwardness is valued.

Good and evil, how much do they differ!

The good man is full of admiration and praise; the bad man is full of blame and quarrelling. How much do they differ! Thus in morbid times faith and sincerity are loathed and depravity and speciousness used.

What man fears

“Man” is the Taoist. What he fears is this: he is afraid of a prince who does not cut off the learned,

must be feared.

[Such an one] associates with men of insinuating appearance and kills the humane and worthy ones.

The bereaved ones may not yet be in the centre.

Somebody says that the common men of the world are bereaved and confused and want to get near the learned ones. They occupy themselves with externals and do not yet stand in the centre. All men are excessive, hsi-hsi means excessive and dissolute, having many feelings and desires.

as if they celebrated a great feast,

As if they were hungrily thinking of the preparations for a great feast. That is the time when they are unsatisfied.

as if they mounted the towers in spring.

In spring, when the union of Yin and Yang penetrates every creature, men feel moved to mount the towers and to look around, as they want to be licentious.

I alone am timorous, as if I had not yet felt a sign.

I alone am so timorous and quiet as if I had not yet felt a sign of my feelings and desires.

Like a baby not yet smiling.

Like a little child not yet able to take part in the mating season of men.

I run about as if I had no place where to go.

I am running about like a poor rustic who has no place where to go.

All men have superabundance,

All men have superabundant riches with which they boast, and superabundant knowledge with which they deceive.

and I alone am as if I had sustained a loss.

I alone am like derelict, as if I had not enough

I have an idiot’s heart, indeed!

I do not correspond to the average men, I preserve unity and do not change, as if I had the mind of an idiot.

Quite ignorant, o!

I have nothing to share.

The vulgar are very bright.

They are enlightened and penetrating.

I alone am like benighted.

Like involved in darkness.

The vulgar are very perspicacious.

Very perspicacious is to be quick and prompt.

I alone am quite dull.

Dull means unable to be cut asunder.

Forlorn, o! like the sea.

I alone am forlorn, like the floods of the [Yang-tse-]chiang and the sea, the limits of which nobody knows.

Driven round as if I had no standpoint.

I alone am driven round as if I were flying, as if I were turned round without a fixed standpoint. I should like to be in the realm of the spirits.

All men without exception are of some use.

One can do something with them.

But I alone am stupid like a rustic.

I alone do nothing, like a rustic, like one who has no pursuit.

I alone differ from others.

I alone am different from other men.

But I value the nourishment from the mother.

The nourishment is the use. The mother is Tao. I alone value the use of Tao.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 絕學無憂,唯之與阿,相去幾何?善之與惡,相去若何?人之所畏,不可不畏。荒兮其未央哉!衆人熙熙,如享太牢,如春登臺。我獨怕兮其未兆;如嬰兒之未孩;儽儽兮若無所歸。衆人皆有餘,而我獨若遺。我愚人之心也哉!沌沌兮,俗人昭昭,我獨若昏。俗人察察,我獨悶悶。澹兮其若海,飂兮若無止,衆人皆有以,而我獨頑似鄙。我獨異於人,而貴食母。

《老子河上公章句·異俗》: 絕學無憂。唯之與阿,相去幾何。善之與惡,相去若何。人之所畏,不可不畏。荒兮其未央哉!眾人熙熙,如享太牢,如春登臺。我獨怕兮其未兆,如嬰兒之未孩。乘乘兮若無所歸。眾人皆有餘,而我獨若遺。我愚人之心也哉,沌沌兮。俗人昭昭,我獨若昏。俗人察察,我獨悶悶。忽兮若海,漂兮若無所止。眾人皆有以,而我獨頑似鄙。我獨異於人而貴食母。

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: □□□□,唯與訶,其相去幾何?美與惡,其相去何若?人之□□,亦不□□□□□□□□□□眾人巸巸,若鄉於大牢,而春登臺。我泊焉未佻,若□□□□;累呵如□□□□□皆有餘,我獨遺。我禺人之心也,蠢蠢呵。□□□□□□𦟲呵鬻人蔡蔡,我獨𨴽𨴽呵。忽呵其若□,望呵其若無所止。□□□□□□□□以悝。吾欲獨異於人,而貴食母。

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 絕學無憂,唯與呵,其相去幾何?美與亞,其相去何若?人之所畏,亦不可以不畏人。朢呵其未央才!眾人熙熙。若鄉於大牢。而春登臺。我博焉未垗,若嬰兒未咳;纍呵佁無所歸。眾人皆又余,我愚人之心也,湷湷呵。鬻人昭昭,我獨若𨴽呵。鬻人察察,我獨閩閩呵,忽呵其若海,朢呵若無所止。眾人皆有以,我獨門元以鄙。吾欲獨異於人,而貴食母。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

絕學絕學不真,不合道文。無憂。除浮華則無憂患也。唯之與阿,相去幾何。同為應對而相去幾何。疾時賤質而貴文。善之與惡,相去若何。善者稱譽,惡者諫諍,能相去何如。 疾時惡忠直,用邪佞也。人之所畏,不可不畏。人謂道人也。人所畏者,畏不絕學之君也。 不可不畏,近令色,殺仁賢。荒兮其未央哉!言世俗人荒亂,欲進學為文,未央止也。眾人熙熙,熙熙,放淫多情欲也。如享太牢,如飢思太牢之具,意無足時也。如春登臺。春,陰陽交通,萬物感動,登台觀之,意志淫淫然。我獨怕兮其未兆,我獨怕然安靜,未有情欲之形兆也。如嬰兒之未孩。如小兒未能答偶人時也。乘乘兮若無所歸。我乘乘如窮鄙,無所歸就。眾人皆有餘,眾人餘財以為奢,餘智以為詐。而我獨若遺。我獨如遺棄,似於不足也。我愚人之心也哉,不與俗人相隨,守一不移,如愚人之心也。沌沌兮。無所分別。俗人昭昭,明且達也。我獨若昏。如闇昧也。俗人察察,察察,急且疾也。我獨悶悶。悶悶,無所割截。忽兮若海,我獨忽忽,如江海之流,莫知其所窮極也。漂兮若無所止。我獨漂漂,若飛若揚,無所止也,志意在神域也。眾人皆有以,以,有為也。而我獨頑我獨無為。似鄙。鄙,似若不逮也。我獨異於人我獨與人異也。而貴食母。食,用也。母,道也。 我獨貴用道也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Abandon learning and there will be no sorrow. How much difference is there between "Yes, sir," and "Of course not"? How much difference is there between "good" and "evil"?
What people dread, do not fail to dread. But, alas, how confused, and the end is not yet.
The multitude are merry, as though feasting on a day of sacrifice. Or like ascending a tower in the springtime. I alone am inert, showing no sign (of desires), Like an infant that has not yet smiled. Wearied, indeed, I seem to be without a home.
The multitude all possess more than enough. I alone seem to have lost all. Mine is indeed the mind of an ignorant man, Indiscriminate and dull!
Common folks are indeed brilliant; I alone seem to be in the dark. Common folks see differences and are clear-cut; I alone make no distinctions. I seem drifting as the sea; Like the wind blowing about, seemingly without destination.
The multitude all have a purpose; I alone seem to be stubborn and rustic. I alone differ from others, And value drawing sustenance from Mother (Tao).
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Eliminate (chüeh) learning so as to have no worries,
Yes and no, how far apart are they?
Good and evil, how far apart are they?
What the sages (jen) fear,
I must not not fear.
I am the wilderness (huang) before the dawn (wei yang).
The multitude (chung jen) are busy and active,
Like partaking of the sacrificial feast,
Like ascending the platform in spring;
I alone (tu) am bland (p'o),
As if I have not yet emerged (chao) into form.
Like an infant who has not yet smiled (hai),
Lost, like one who has nowhere to return (wu so kuei).
The multitudes (chung jen) all have too much (yu yü);
I alone (tu) am deficient (i).
My mind (hsin) is that of a fool (yü),
Nebulous.
Worldly people (su jen) are luminous (chao);
I alone (tu) am dark (hun).
Worldly people are clear-sighted (ch'a);
I alone (tu) am dull (men),
I am calm like the sea,
Like the high winds I never stop (chih).
The multitudes (chung jen) all have their use (i);
I alone (tu) am untamable like lowly material.
I alone (tu) am different from others.
For I treasure feeding on the Mother (mu).
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Between yea and nay, how much difference is there? Between good and evil, how much difference is there?
What are feared by others we must fear; Vastly are they unlimited!
The people in general are as happy as if enjoying a great feast. Or, as going up a tower in spring. I alone am tranquil, and have made no signs, Like a baby who is yet unable to smile; Forlorn as if I had no home to go to.
Others all have more than enough, And I alone seem to be in want. Possibly mine is the mind of a fool, Which is so ignorant!
The vulgar are bright, And I alone seem to be dull. The vulgar are discriminative, and I alone seem blunt. I am negligent as if being obscure; Drifting, as if being attached to nothing.
The people in general all have something to do, And I alone seem to be impractical and awkward. I alone am different from others. But I value seeking sustenance from the Mother. To know the eternal is to be enlightened. Not to know the eternal is to act blindly and court disaster.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
絕 // 绝 // jué // ① couper ② rompre ③ épuisé ④ unique ⑤ absolument // Chinese-French
絕 // 绝 // jué // ① to cut short ② extinct ③ to disappear ④ to vanish ⑤ absolutely ⑥ by no means // CC-CEDICT
學 // 学 // xué // ① étudier ② apprendre ③ science ④ -ologie // Chinese-French
學 // 学 // xué // ① to learn ② to study ③ to imitate ④ science ⑤ -ology // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
憂 // 忧 // yōu // ① chagrin ② souci ③ tristesse ④ mélancolie ⑤ se soucier de ⑥ s'affliger // Chinese-French
憂 // 忧 // yōu // ① to worry ② to concern oneself with ③ worried ④ anxiety ⑤ sorrow ⑥ (literary) to observe mourning // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
阿 // 阿 // ā // ① (préfixe ou suffixe informel) // Chinese-French
阿 // 阿 // ā // ① abbr. for Afghanistan 阿富汗[A1 fu4 han4] // CC-CEDICT
阿 // 阿 // ā // ① prefix used before monosyllabic names, kinship terms etc to indicate familiarity ② used in transliteration ③ also pr. [a4] // CC-CEDICT
阿 // 阿 // a // ① flatteur // Chinese-French
阿 // 阿 // ē // ① flatter ② se plier // Chinese-French
阿 // 阿 // ē // ① flatter // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
去 // 去 // qù // ① aller ② quitter ③ enlever (placé après un verbe pour marquer la direction ou la destination) vers ④ dans la direction de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
去 // 去 // qù // ① to go ② to go to (a place) ③ (of a time etc) last ④ just passed ⑤ to send ⑥ to remove ⑦ to get rid of ⑧ to reduce ⑨ to be apart from in space or time ⑩ to die (euphemism) ⑪ to play (a part) ⑫ (when used either before or after a verb) to go in order to do sth ⑬ (after a verb of motion indicates movement away from the speaker) ⑭ (used after certain verbs to indicate detachment or separation) // CC-CEDICT
幾何 // 几何 // jǐ hé // ① géométrie // Chinese-French
幾何 // 几何 // jǐ hé // ① geometry ② (literary) how much // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // è // ① mauvais ② méchant ③ vicieux // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // è // ① evil ② fierce ③ vicious ④ ugly ⑤ coarse ⑥ to harm // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① mal // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① see 惡心|恶心[e3 xin1] // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① haïr ② détestable // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① to hate ② to loathe ③ ashamed ④ to fear ⑤ to slander // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
去 // 去 // qù // ① aller ② quitter ③ enlever (placé après un verbe pour marquer la direction ou la destination) vers ④ dans la direction de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
去 // 去 // qù // ① to go ② to go to (a place) ③ (of a time etc) last ④ just passed ⑤ to send ⑥ to remove ⑦ to get rid of ⑧ to reduce ⑨ to be apart from in space or time ⑩ to die (euphemism) ⑪ to play (a part) ⑫ (when used either before or after a verb) to go in order to do sth ⑬ (after a verb of motion indicates movement away from the speaker) ⑭ (used after certain verbs to indicate detachment or separation) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① quel ? ② quoi ? // Chinese-French
何 // 何 // hé // ① surname He // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① what ② how ③ why ④ which ⑤ carry // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
畏 // 畏 // wèi // ① craindre // Chinese-French
畏 // 畏 // wèi // ① to fear // CC-CEDICT
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① ne pas devoir ② ne pas pouvoir ③ pas // Chinese-French
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① cannot ② should not ③ must not // CC-CEDICT
不畏 // 不畏 // bù wèi // ① sans peur ② défier // Chinese-French
不畏 // 不畏 // bù wèi // ① unafraid ② to defy // CC-CEDICT
荒 // 荒 // huāng // ① disette ② famine ③ manque ④ abandonner ⑤ négliger ⑥ inculte ⑦ stérile ⑧ désert ⑨ abandonné // Chinese-French
荒 // 荒 // huāng // ① desolate ② shortage ③ scarce ④ out of practice ⑤ absurd ⑥ uncultivated ⑦ to neglect // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
未央 // 未央 // wèi yāng // ① District de Weiyang (Xi'an) // Chinese-French
未央 // 未央 // wèi yāng // ① Weiyang District of Xi’an 西安市[Xi1 an1 Shi4], Shaanxi // CC-CEDICT
未央 // 未央 // wèi yāng // ① (literary) not ended ② not yet over ③ close to the end // CC-CEDICT
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (particule exclamative ou interrogative) // Chinese-French
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (exclamatory or interrogative particle) // CC-CEDICT
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① nombreux ② foule // Chinese-French
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① variant of 眾|众[zhong4] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
熙 // 熙 // xī // ① prospère ② splendide // Chinese-French
熙 // 熙 // xī // ① prosperous ② splendid // CC-CEDICT
熈 // 熙 // xī // ① variant of 熙[xi1] // CC-CEDICT
熙 // 熙 // xī // ① prospère ② splendide // Chinese-French
熙 // 熙 // xī // ① prosperous ② splendid // CC-CEDICT
熈 // 熙 // xī // ① variant of 熙[xi1] // CC-CEDICT
如 // 如 // rú // ① si ② conformément à ③ selon ④ par exemple ⑤ comme si ⑥ être comparable ⑦ égaler // Chinese-French
如 // 如 // rú // ① as ② as if ③ such as // CC-CEDICT
享 // 享 // xiǎng // ① jouir de // Chinese-French
享 // 享 // xiǎng // ① to enjoy ② to benefit ③ to have the use of // CC-CEDICT
亯 // 享 // xiǎng // ① old variant of 享[xiang3] // CC-CEDICT
太 // 太 // tài // ① trop ② très ③ extrêmement // Chinese-French
太 // 太 // tài // ① highest ② greatest ③ too (much) ④ very ⑤ extremely // CC-CEDICT
牢 // 牢 // láo // ① enclos ② sacrifice ③ prison ④ solide // Chinese-French
牢 // 牢 // láo // ① firm ② sturdy ③ fold (for animals) ④ sacrifice ⑤ prison // CC-CEDICT
如 // 如 // rú // ① si ② conformément à ③ selon ④ par exemple ⑤ comme si ⑥ être comparable ⑦ égaler // Chinese-French
如 // 如 // rú // ① as ② as if ③ such as // CC-CEDICT
春 // 春 // chūn // ① printemps ② amour ③ vie // Chinese-French
春 // 春 // chūn // ① surname Chun // CC-CEDICT
春 // 春 // chūn // ① spring (time) ② gay ③ joyful ④ youthful ⑤ love ⑥ lust ⑦ life // CC-CEDICT
旾 // 春 // chūn // ① old variant of 春[chun1] // CC-CEDICT
登 // 登 // dēng // ① grimper ② publier ③ inscrire ④ noter ⑤ fouler ⑥ mettre (une chaussure) // Chinese-French
登 // 登 // dēng // ① to scale (a height) ② to ascend ③ to mount ④ to publish or record ⑤ to enter (e.g. in a register) ⑥ to press down with the foot ⑦ to step or tread on ⑧ to put on (shoes or trousers) (dialect) ⑨ to be gathered and taken to the threshing ground (old) // CC-CEDICT
臺 // 台 // tái // ① Taiwan (abbr.) // CC-CEDICT
臺 // 台 // tái // ① platform ② stage ③ terrace ④ stand ⑤ support ⑥ station ⑦ broadcasting station ⑧ classifier for vehicles or machines // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
獨 // 独 // dú // ① unique ② seul ③ solitaire // Chinese-French
獨 // 独 // dú // ① alone ② independent ③ single ④ sole ⑤ only // CC-CEDICT
怕 // 怕 // pà // ① craindre ② avoir peur ③ être effrayé // Chinese-French
怕 // 怕 // pà // ① surname Pa // CC-CEDICT
怕 // 怕 // pà // ① to be afraid ② to fear ③ to dread ④ to be unable to endure ⑤ perhaps // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
未 // 未 // wèi // ① ne pas ② pas encore ③ car. cycl. // Chinese-French
未 // 未 // wèi // ① not yet ② did not ③ have not ④ not ⑤ 8th earthly branch: 1-3 p.m., 6th solar month (7th July-6th August), year of the Sheep ⑥ ancient Chinese compass point: 210° // CC-CEDICT
兆 // 兆 // zhào // ① million ② présage // Chinese-French
兆 // 兆 // zhào // ① surname Zhao // CC-CEDICT
兆 // 兆 // zhào // ① omen ② to foretell ③ million ④ mega- ⑤ trillion ⑥ tera- ⑦ billion (old) // CC-CEDICT
如 // 如 // rú // ① si ② conformément à ③ selon ④ par exemple ⑤ comme si ⑥ être comparable ⑦ égaler // Chinese-French
如 // 如 // rú // ① as ② as if ③ such as // CC-CEDICT
嬰兒 // 婴儿 // yīng ér // ① bébé ② nouveau-né // Chinese-French
嬰兒 // 婴儿 // yīng ér // ① infant ② baby ③ CL:個|个[ge4] ④ lead (Pb) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
未 // 未 // wèi // ① ne pas ② pas encore ③ car. cycl. // Chinese-French
未 // 未 // wèi // ① not yet ② did not ③ have not ④ not ⑤ 8th earthly branch: 1-3 p.m., 6th solar month (7th July-6th August), year of the Sheep ⑥ ancient Chinese compass point: 210° // CC-CEDICT
孩 // 孩 // hái // ① enfant // Chinese-French
孩 // 孩 // hái // ① child // CC-CEDICT
儽 // 儽 // lěi // ① lazy ② tired out, worn fatigued // CC-CEDICT
儽 // 儽 // lěi // ① lazy ② tired out, worn fatigued // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
歸 // 归 // guī // ① retourner ② rentrer ③ rendre ④ appartenir ⑤ vers // Chinese-French
歸 // 归 // guī // ① surname Gui // CC-CEDICT
歸 // 归 // guī // ① to return ② to go back to ③ to give back to ④ (of a responsibility) to be taken care of by ⑤ to belong to ⑥ to gather together ⑦ (used between two identical verbs) despite ⑧ to marry (of a woman) (old) ⑨ division on the abacus with a one-digit divisor // CC-CEDICT
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① nombreux ② foule // Chinese-French
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① variant of 眾|众[zhong4] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① tout ② tous // Chinese-French
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① all ② each and every ③ in all cases // CC-CEDICT
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① avoir assez de ② avoir de l'excédent // Chinese-French
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① to have an abundance // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
獨 // 独 // dú // ① unique ② seul ③ solitaire // Chinese-French
獨 // 独 // dú // ① alone ② independent ③ single ④ sole ⑤ only // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
遺 // 遗 // yí // ① perdre ② abandonner ③ laisser ④ léguer ⑤ transmettre ⑥ omettre // Chinese-French
遺 // 遗 // yí // ① to lose ② to leave behind ③ to omit ④ to bequeath ⑤ sth lost ⑥ involuntary discharge (of urine etc) // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
愚人 // 愚人 // yú rén // ① personne stupide ② ignorant // Chinese-French
愚人 // 愚人 // yú rén // ① stupid person ② ignoramus // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
心 // 心 // xīn // ① coeur ② pensée ③ esprit ④ intention // Chinese-French
心 // 心 // xīn // ① heart ② mind ③ intention ④ center ⑤ core ⑥ CL:顆|颗[ke1],個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
也 // 也 // yě // ① également ② aussi ③ à la fois ④ même ⑤ voire // Chinese-French
也 // 也 // yě // ① surname Ye // CC-CEDICT
也 // 也 // yě // ① also ② too ③ (in Classical Chinese) final particle implying affirmation // CC-CEDICT
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (particule exclamative ou interrogative) // Chinese-French
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (exclamatory or interrogative particle) // CC-CEDICT
沌 // 沌 // dùn // ① chaos, confus // Chinese-French
沌 // 沌 // dùn // ① confused ② turbid // CC-CEDICT
沌 // 沌 // dùn // ① chaos, confus // Chinese-French
沌 // 沌 // dùn // ① confused ② turbid // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
俗人 // 俗人 // sú rén // ① gens communs ② laïcs // Chinese-French
俗人 // 俗人 // sú rén // ① common people ② laity (i.e. not priests) // CC-CEDICT
昭 // 昭 // zhāo // ① clair ② évident // Chinese-French
昭 // 昭 // zhāo // ① bright ② clear ③ manifest ④ to show clearly // CC-CEDICT
昭 // 昭 // zhāo // ① clair ② évident // Chinese-French
昭 // 昭 // zhāo // ① bright ② clear ③ manifest ④ to show clearly // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
獨 // 独 // dú // ① unique ② seul ③ solitaire // Chinese-French
獨 // 独 // dú // ① alone ② independent ③ single ④ sole ⑤ only // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
昏 // 昏 // hūn // ① perdre connaissance ② s'évanouir ③ sombre ④ obscur ⑤ troublé // Chinese-French
昏 // 昏 // hūn // ① muddle-headed ② twilight ③ to faint ④ to lose consciousness // CC-CEDICT
昬 // 昏 // hūn // ① old variant of 昏[hun1] // CC-CEDICT
俗人 // 俗人 // sú rén // ① gens communs ② laïcs // Chinese-French
俗人 // 俗人 // sú rén // ① common people ② laity (i.e. not priests) // CC-CEDICT
察察 // 察察 // chá chá // ① clean ② spotless // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
獨 // 独 // dú // ① unique ② seul ③ solitaire // Chinese-French
獨 // 独 // dú // ① alone ② independent ③ single ④ sole ⑤ only // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① mélancolique // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① bored ② depressed ③ melancholy ④ sealed ⑤ airtight ⑥ tightly closed // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① étouffant ② fermer ③ étancher ④ ennuyeux ⑤ triste ⑥ déprimé ⑦ morose ⑧ étouffant ⑨ mal aéré ⑩ lourd // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① stuffy ② shut indoors ③ to smother ④ to cover tightly // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① mélancolique // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① bored ② depressed ③ melancholy ④ sealed ⑤ airtight ⑥ tightly closed // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① étouffant ② fermer ③ étancher ④ ennuyeux ⑤ triste ⑥ déprimé ⑦ morose ⑧ étouffant ⑨ mal aéré ⑩ lourd // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① stuffy ② shut indoors ③ to smother ④ to cover tightly // CC-CEDICT
澹 // 澹 // dàn // ① tranquille ② calme ③ paisible ④ imperturbable // Chinese-French
澹 // 澹 // dàn // ① tranquil ② placid ③ quiet // CC-CEDICT
澹 // 澹 // tán // ① tranquille ② calme ③ paisible ④ imperturbable // Chinese-French
澹 // 澹 // tán // ① surname Tan // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
海 // 海 // hǎi // ① mer // Chinese-French
海 // 海 // hǎi // ① surname Hai // CC-CEDICT
海 // 海 // hǎi // ① ocean ② sea ③ CL:個|个[ge4],片[pian4] ④ great number of people or things ⑤ (dialect) numerous // CC-CEDICT
飂 // 飂 // liáo // ① wind in high places // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
止 // 止 // zhǐ // ① seul ② arrêter ③ cesser ④ jusqu'à // Chinese-French
止 // 止 // zhǐ // ① to stop ② to prohibit ③ until ④ only // CC-CEDICT
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① nombreux ② foule // Chinese-French
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① variant of 眾|众[zhong4] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① tout ② tous // Chinese-French
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① all ② each and every ③ in all cases // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
獨 // 独 // dú // ① unique ② seul ③ solitaire // Chinese-French
獨 // 独 // dú // ① alone ② independent ③ single ④ sole ⑤ only // CC-CEDICT
頑 // 顽 // wán // ① résistant ② têtu ③ opiniâtre ④ conservateur // Chinese-French
頑 // 顽 // wán // ① mischievous ② obstinate ③ to play ④ stupid ⑤ stubborn ⑥ naughty // CC-CEDICT
似 // 似 // shì // ① comme // Chinese-French
似 // 似 // shì // ① see 似的[shi4 de5] // CC-CEDICT
似 // 似 // sì // ① semblable ② ressembler // Chinese-French
似 // 似 // sì // ① to seem ② to appear ③ to resemble ④ similar ⑤ -like ⑥ pseudo- ⑦ (more) than // CC-CEDICT
佀 // 似 // sì // ① old variant of 似[si4] // CC-CEDICT
鄙 // 鄙 // bǐ // ① vil, vulgaire, bas ② dédaigner // Chinese-French
鄙 // 鄙 // bǐ // ① rustic ② low ③ base ④ mean ⑤ to despise ⑥ to scorn // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
獨 // 独 // dú // ① unique ② seul ③ solitaire // Chinese-French
獨 // 独 // dú // ① alone ② independent ③ single ④ sole ⑤ only // CC-CEDICT
異 // 异 // yì // ① différent ② étrange ③ exceptionnel // Chinese-French
異 // 异 // yì // ① different ② other ③ hetero- ④ unusual ⑤ strange ⑥ surprising ⑦ to distinguish ⑧ to separate ⑨ to discriminate // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
食 // 食 // shí // ① manger ② nourriture ③ aliments pour animaux ④ éclipse // Chinese-French
食 // 食 // shí // ① to eat ② food ③ animal feed ④ eclipse // CC-CEDICT
食 // 食 // sì // ① nourrir // Chinese-French
食 // 食 // sì // ① to feed // CC-CEDICT
母 // 母 // mǔ // ① mère ② femelle // Chinese-French
母 // 母 // mǔ // ① mother ② elderly female relative ③ origin ④ source ⑤ (of animals) female // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

How much difference can there be
Between praise and criticism?
How similar goodness is to evil!
Why must one want and do
What everyone else wants and does?
What an absurd expanse of culture!
People hustle and bustle everywhere
As if they were enjoying a grand feast
Or climbing a spring tower.
I sit here, alone, like an infant that cannot giggle yet
And look forlorn as if I am homeless.
Everyone else is acquiring, possessing,
But I seem to be losing all the time.
Am I not foolish, indeed?
While others are decisive,
I am muddled.
While others are quick in judgment,
I am dull-minded.
I am like an ocean that cannot be easily stirred,
Or a wind that has nowhere to dwell.
Other people are intelligent, strong-minded, longheaded,
But I seem simple, foolish, slow.
I am different in that
I value only what provides my nourishment.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Repudiate learning, and stay free of worry.
Really, how distant can approval be from disapproval?
Or, how far apart can praise and censure be?
One feared by others must also fear others accordingly.
A gulf so vast, oh, it is truly infinite!
Common people, caught up in the pursuit of happiness, behave as if feasting at a great sacrifice or ascending a springtime terrace.
I alone am quiet and indifferent, oh, in an entirely premanifest state [weizhao], just like an infant who has not yet smiled,
Utterly aimless, oh, just as if I had no place to go home.
Common people all have more than enough, but I alone seem to have lost all.
Mine is really the heart/mind of a stupid man!
Absolutely amorphous, oh!
Common people are clearly obvious.
But I alone am cryptically obscure.
Common people are meticulously discriminating,
But I alone muddle everything together.
Floating indifferently, oh, as if out on the sea,
Blown about by the wind, oh, I seem to have no place to stop.
Common people all would have purpose.
But I alone am doltish and rustic.
I alone wish to be different from others and so value drawing sustenance from the mother.
(Ⅷ)


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