Chapter 27 On the use of cleverness.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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27. 1  
Who walks well leaves neither rut nor track.

Who walks well in Tao looks for it within his body; he does not descend into the hall nor pass through the gate. Therefore he leaves neither rut nor track.

Who talks well receives neither blame nor reproach.

To talk well means to utter well-chosen words. Then one is neither blamed nor reproached within the world.

Who counts well needs no abacus.

Who by means of Tao well calculates his business, retains unity and does not change. He does not make many calculations, therefore he needs no abacus and is nevertheless able to know.

Who closes well needs no bolts and bars, and one cannot open.

Who closes well with Tao, calms his desires and retains his semen, is not like a door which has bolts and bars and can nevertheless be opened.

Who ties well needs no knotted cords, and one is nevertheless not able to untie.

Who with Tao well ties up his business is able to tie up his mind. This is not like a knotted cord which can be untied.

Therefore the saint always benignly saves men.

Whereby the saint always teaches men, this is faithfulness and piety. Thereby he wants to save the lives of men.

Therefore there are no rejected men.

He employs the high and the low ones, and everybody gets his place.

Always benignly he saves the creatures.

What the saint always teaches the people is how to accomodate themselves to the seasons. Thereby he saves all creatures from becoming hurt.

Therefore there are no rejected creatures.

The saint does not despise the stone nor esteem the jade. He regards them as if they were one and the same.

This is called conforming to the light.

The saint benignly saves men and creatures. This is called to conform to the enlightened way of heaven.

Therefore the good man is the teacher of the bad man.

If men try to behave well, the saint will thereby become their teacher.

The bad man is the tool of the good man.

資 = useful. If men behave badly, the saint teaches and leads them, so to say, and makes them good. Thereby he achieves to impart usefulness to them.

If one does not revere one’s teacher,

If one is alone and helpless,

if one does not love one’s tool,

If one has nobody to instruct,

though wise, one is very confused.

Though they themselves think their words wise, such men are very confused.

This is called mysterious.

If one is able to penetrate the meaning of this, this means that one knows the mysterious Tao.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 善行無轍迹,善言無瑕讁;善數不用籌策;善閉無關楗而不可開,善結無繩約而不可解。是以聖人常善救人,故無棄人;常善救物,故無棄物。是謂襲明。故善人者,不善人之師;不善人者,善人之資。不貴其師,不愛其資,雖智大迷,是謂要妙。

《老子河上公章句·巧用》: 善行無轍迹,善言無瑕讁,善數不用籌策,善閉無關楗而不可開善結無繩約而不可解。是以聖人常善救人,故無棄人;常善救物,故無棄物。是謂襲明。故善人者,不善人之師;不善人者,善人之資。不貴其師,雖智大迷,是謂要妙。

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: 善行者無勶迹,□言者無瑕適;善數者不以檮策;善閉者無關籥而不可啟也,善結者□□約而不可解也。是以聲人恆善救人,而無棄人;物無棄財。是胃申明。故善□□□之師;不善人,善人之齎也。不貴其師,不愛其齎,唯知乎大眯,是胃眇要。

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 善行者無達迹,善言者無瑕適;善數者不用篿策;善○閉者無關籥而不可啟也,善結者無纆約而不可解也。是以聖人恆善救人,而無棄人,物無棄財,是胃曳明。故善人,善人之師;不善人,善人之資也。不貴其師,不愛其資,雖知乎大迷,是胃眇要。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

善行無轍迹,善行道者求之於身,不下堂,不出門,故無轍迹。善言無瑕讁,善言謂擇言而出之,則無瑕疵讁過於天下。善數不用籌策,善以道計事者,則守一不移,所計不多,則不用籌策而可知也。善閉無關楗而不可開善以道閉情欲、守精神者,不如門戶有關楗可得開。善結無繩約而不可解。善以道結事者,乃可結其心,不如繩索可得解也。是以聖人常善救人,聖人所以常教人忠孝者,欲以救人性命。故無棄人;使貴賤各得其所也。常善救物,聖人所以常教民順四時者,欲以救萬物之殘傷。故無棄物。聖人不賤名而貴玉視之如一。是謂襲明。聖人善救人物,是謂襲明大道。故善人者,不善人之師;人之行善者,聖人即以為人師。不善人者,善人之資。資,用也。人行不善者,聖人猶教導使為善,得以給用也。不貴其師,獨無輔也。不愛其資 無所使也。雖智大迷,雖自以為智。言此人乃大迷惑。是謂要妙。能通此意,是謂知微妙要道也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

A good traveller leaves no track or trace. A good speech leaves no flaws. A good reckoner uses no counters.
A well-shut door needs no bolts, and yet it cannot be opened. A well-tied knot needs no rope and yet none can untie it.
Therefore the sage is always good in saving men and consequently no man is rejected. He is always good in saving things and consequently nothing is rejected. This is called following the light (of Nature).
Therefore the good man is the teacher of the bad, And the bad is the material from which the good may learn.
He who does not value the teacher, Or greatly care for the material, Is greatly deluded although he may be learned. Such is the essential mystery.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Good (shan) running leaves no tracks,
Good speech has no flaws,
Good counting uses no counters,
A good lock uses no bolts yet cannot be opened,
A good knot uses no rope yet cannot be untied.
Hence the sage is always good at saving people,
Therefore no one is rejected.
He is always good at saving things,
Therefore nothing is rejected.
This is called following the light (ming).
Therefore the good person,
Is the not-good (pu-shan) person's teacher.
The not-good (pu-shan) person,
Is the good person's capital.
One who does not honor (kuei) the teacher,
Or love (ai) the capital,
Is greatly confounded though knowledgeable (chih).
This is called the important mystery (miao).
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

A good traveler leaves no track; A good speaker leaves no error; A good reckoner needs no counter;
A good closer needs no bars or bolts, And yet it is impossible to open after him. A good fastener needs no cords or knots, And yet it is impossible to untie after him.
Even if men be bad, why should they be rejected? Therefore the Sage is always a good saviour of men, And no man is rejected; He is a good saviour of things, And nothing is rejected: This is called double enlightenment.
Therefore good men are had men's instructors, And bad men are good men's materials.
Those who do not esteem their instructors, And those who do not love their materials, Though expedient, are in fact greatly confused. This is essential subtlety.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
善行 // 善行 // shàn xíng // ① bonnes actions // Chinese-French
善行 // 善行 // shàn xíng // ① good actions // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
轍 // 辙 // zhé // ① trace de roue ② ornière ③ voie // Chinese-French
轍 // 辙 // zhé // ① rut ② track ③ rhyme ④ (dialect) way ⑤ method // CC-CEDICT
轍 // 辙 // chè // ① ornière ② précédent // Chinese-French
轍 // 辙 // chè // ① to remove ② to withdraw // CC-CEDICT
迹 // 迹 // jì // ① traces, empreinte de pas, vestiges ② chercher, découvrir // Chinese-French
迹 // 迹 // jì // ① variant of 跡|迹[ji4] // CC-CEDICT
跡 // 迹 // jì // ① footprint ② mark ③ trace ④ vestige ⑤ sign ⑥ indication ⑦ Taiwan pr. [ji1] // CC-CEDICT
蹟 // 迹 // jì // ① variant of 跡|迹[ji4] // CC-CEDICT
善言 // 善言 // shàn yán // ① good words // CC-CEDICT
無瑕 // 无瑕 // wú xiá // ① sans faille ② idéal // Chinese-French
無瑕 // 无瑕 // wú xiá // ① faultless ② perfect // CC-CEDICT
讁 // 谪 // zhé // ① variant of 謫|谪[zhe2] // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
數 // 数 // shù // ① nombre ② qqs, plusieurs // Chinese-French
數 // 数 // shù // ① number ② figure ③ several ④ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
數 // 数 // shǔ // ① compter // Chinese-French
數 // 数 // shǔ // ① to count ② to count as ③ to regard as ④ to enumerate (sb's shortcomings) // CC-CEDICT
數 // 数 // shuò // ① nombre // Chinese-French
數 // 数 // shuò // ① frequently ② repeatedly // CC-CEDICT
不用 // 不用 // bù yòng // ① ce n'est pas la peine ... // Chinese-French
不用 // 不用 // bù yòng // ① need not // CC-CEDICT
籌 // 筹 // chóu // ① préparer ② combiner ③ projeter // Chinese-French
籌 // 筹 // chóu // ① chip (in gambling) ② token (for counting) ③ ticket ④ to prepare ⑤ to plan ⑥ to raise (funds) ⑦ resource ⑧ means // CC-CEDICT
策 // 策 // cè // ① plan ② stratégie ③ tactique // Chinese-French
策 // 策 // cè // ① surname Ce // CC-CEDICT
策 // 策 // cè // ① policy ② plan ③ scheme ④ bamboo slip for writing (old) ⑤ to whip (a horse) ⑥ to encourage ⑦ riding crop with sharp spines (old) ⑧ essay written for the imperial examinations (old) ⑨ upward horizontal stroke in calligraphy // CC-CEDICT
筞 // 策 // cè // ① variant of 策[ce4] // CC-CEDICT
筴 // 策 // cè // ① variant of 策[ce4] // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
閉 // 闭 // bì // ① fermer ② clore ③ arrêter ④ faire obstruction // Chinese-French
閉 // 闭 // bì // ① to close ② to stop up ③ to shut ④ to obstruct // CC-CEDICT
無關 // 无关 // wú guān // ① ne pas concerner ② être sans rapport avec // Chinese-French
無關 // 无关 // wú guān // ① unrelated ② having nothing to do (with sth else) // CC-CEDICT
楗 // 楗 // jiàn // ① material (such as rocks, earth, bamboo etc) used to hastily repair a dike ② (literary) door bar (vertical bar used to prevent the horizontal movement of a door bolt) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① ne pas devoir ② ne pas pouvoir ③ pas // Chinese-French
不可 // 不可 // bù kě // ① cannot ② should not ③ must not // CC-CEDICT
開 // 开 // kāi // ① ouvrir ② frayer ③ percer ④ s'épanouir ⑤ mettre en marche ⑥ démarrer ⑦ fonder ⑧ établir ⑨ commencer ⑩ débuter ⑪ tenir ⑫ organiser ⑬ bouillir // Chinese-French
開 // 开 // kāi // ① to open ② to start ③ to turn on ④ to boil ⑤ to write out (a prescription, check, invoice etc) ⑥ to operate (a vehicle) ⑦ carat (gold) ⑧ abbr. for Kelvin, 開爾文|开尔文[Kai1 er3 wen2] ⑨ abbr. for 開本|开本[kai1 ben3], book format // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
結 // 结 // jié // ① nouer ② noeud ③ unir ④ terminer // Chinese-French
結 // 结 // jié // ① knot ② sturdy ③ bond ④ to tie ⑤ to bind ⑥ to check out (of a hotel) // CC-CEDICT
結 // 结 // jiē // ① robuste ② solide ③ produire des fruits // Chinese-French
結 // 结 // jiē // ① (of a plant) to produce (fruit or seeds) ② Taiwan pr. [jie2] // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
繩 // 绳 // shéng // ① corde ② ficelle // Chinese-French
繩 // 绳 // shéng // ① rope ② CL:根[gen1] // CC-CEDICT
約 // 约 // yuē // ① prendre rendez-vous ② inviter ③ environ // Chinese-French
約 // 约 // yuē // ① to make an appointment ② to invite ③ approximately ④ pact ⑤ treaty ⑥ to economize ⑦ to restrict ⑧ to reduce (a fraction) ⑨ concise // CC-CEDICT
約 // 约 // yāo // ① peser sur une balance ② soupeser // Chinese-French
約 // 约 // yāo // ① to weigh in a balance or on a scale // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不可解 // 不可解 // bù kě jiě // ① insoluble ② impossible à résoudre // Chinese-French
不可解 // 不可解 // bù kě jiě // ① insoluble (i.e. impossible to solve) // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① souvent ② fréquemment ③ ordinaire ④ commun ⑤ constant ⑥ invariable // Chinese-French
常 // 常 // cháng // ① surname Chang // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① always ② ever ③ often ④ frequently ⑤ common ⑥ general ⑦ constant // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
救 // 救 // jiù // ① sauver ② secourir ③ assister ④ aider // Chinese-French
救 // 救 // jiù // ① to save ② to assist ③ to rescue // CC-CEDICT
捄 // 救 // jiù // ① variant of 救[jiu4] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
棄 // 弃 // qì // ① abandonner ② rejeter // Chinese-French
棄 // 弃 // qì // ① to abandon ② to relinquish ③ to discard ④ to throw away // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① souvent ② fréquemment ③ ordinaire ④ commun ⑤ constant ⑥ invariable // Chinese-French
常 // 常 // cháng // ① surname Chang // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① always ② ever ③ often ④ frequently ⑤ common ⑥ general ⑦ constant // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
救 // 救 // jiù // ① sauver ② secourir ③ assister ④ aider // Chinese-French
救 // 救 // jiù // ① to save ② to assist ③ to rescue // CC-CEDICT
捄 // 救 // jiù // ① variant of 救[jiu4] // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
棄 // 弃 // qì // ① abandonner ② rejeter // Chinese-French
棄 // 弃 // qì // ① to abandon ② to relinquish ③ to discard ④ to throw away // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
襲 // 袭 // xí // ① attaquer par surprise ② assaillir // Chinese-French
襲 // 袭 // xí // ① to attack ② to inherit ③ classifier for suits (esp. of funeral robes) // CC-CEDICT
明 // 明 // míng // ① brillant ② clair ③ comprendre ④ vue ⑤ distinct ⑥ net ⑦ ouvert ⑧ public ⑨ explicite ⑩ prompt ⑪ leste ⑫ prochain ⑬ suivant ⑭ ouvertement // Chinese-French
明 // 明 // míng // ① Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) ② surname Ming ③ Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
明 // 明 // míng // ① bright ② opposite: dark 暗[an4] ③ (of meaning) clear ④ to understand ⑤ next ⑥ public or open ⑦ wise ⑧ generic term for a sacrifice to the gods // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
善人 // 善人 // shàn rén // ① philanthrope ② personne charitable ③ bienfaiteur // Chinese-French
善人 // 善人 // shàn rén // ① philanthropist ② charitable person ③ well-doer // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① mauvais ② méchant // Chinese-French
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① bad ② ill ③ not good at ④ not to be pooh-poohed ⑤ quite impressive // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
師 // 师 // shī // ① maître ② chef ③ armée, multitude ④ capitale // Chinese-French
師 // 师 // shī // ① surname Shi // CC-CEDICT
師 // 师 // shī // ① teacher ② master ③ expert ④ model ⑤ army division ⑥ (old) troops ⑦ to dispatch troops // CC-CEDICT
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① mauvais ② méchant // Chinese-French
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① bad ② ill ③ not good at ④ not to be pooh-poohed ⑤ quite impressive // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
善人 // 善人 // shàn rén // ① philanthrope ② personne charitable ③ bienfaiteur // Chinese-French
善人 // 善人 // shàn rén // ① philanthropist ② charitable person ③ well-doer // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
資 // 资 // zī // ① argent ② ressources ③ capital ④ biens ⑤ financer ⑥ subventionner ⑦ fournir ⑧ ancienneté // Chinese-French
資 // 资 // zī // ① resources ② capital ③ to provide ④ to supply ⑤ to support ⑥ money ⑦ expense // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
師 // 师 // shī // ① maître ② chef ③ armée, multitude ④ capitale // Chinese-French
師 // 师 // shī // ① surname Shi // CC-CEDICT
師 // 师 // shī // ① teacher ② master ③ expert ④ model ⑤ army division ⑥ (old) troops ⑦ to dispatch troops // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
愛 // 爱 // ài // ① amour ② aimer ③ affection ④ être fan de ⑤ adorer // Chinese-French
愛 // 爱 // ài // ① to love ② to be fond of ③ to like ④ affection ⑤ to be inclined (to do sth) ⑥ to tend to (happen) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
資 // 资 // zī // ① argent ② ressources ③ capital ④ biens ⑤ financer ⑥ subventionner ⑦ fournir ⑧ ancienneté // Chinese-French
資 // 资 // zī // ① resources ② capital ③ to provide ④ to supply ⑤ to support ⑥ money ⑦ expense // CC-CEDICT
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① bien que ② malgré que // Chinese-French
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① although ② even though // CC-CEDICT
智 // 智 // zhì // ① sagesse // Chinese-French
智 // 智 // zhì // ① wisdom ② knowledge // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
迷 // 迷 // mí // ① fanatique ② fan ③ passionné ④ se perdre ⑤ charmer ⑥ séduire // Chinese-French
迷 // 迷 // mí // ① to bewilder ② crazy about ③ fan ④ enthusiast ⑤ lost ⑥ confused // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
要 // 要 // yāo // ① demander ② exiger ③ forcer ④ contraindre // Chinese-French
要 // 要 // yāo // ① to demand ② to request ③ to coerce // CC-CEDICT
要 // 要 // yào // ① avoir besoin de ② demander ③ réclamer ④ désirer ⑤ vouloir ⑥ devoir ⑦ il faut ⑧ essentiel ⑨ substance ⑩ si ⑪ supposé que ⑫ soit... soit... // Chinese-French
要 // 要 // yào // ① important ② vital ③ to want ④ to ask for ⑤ will ⑥ going to (as future auxiliary) ⑦ may ⑧ must ⑨ (used in a comparison) must be ⑩ probably ⑪ if // CC-CEDICT
妙 // 妙 // miào // ① merveilleux ② ingénieux // Chinese-French
妙 // 妙 // miào // ① clever ② wonderful // CC-CEDICT
玅 // 妙 // miào // ① variant of 妙[miao4] // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

A good walker leaves no trace.
A good speaker uses no blasphemy.
A good calculator uses no counting aids.
A good door-keeper needs no bars.
A good knot uses no strings.
Similarly,
A wise saver will part with no one.
A wise user will waste nothing.
It is the subtle insight that gives such abilities.
The wise person will be seen as the teacher for the unwise.
The unwise will be regarded as the resources for the wise.
One may be a mental genius,
But if he appreciates no teacher or other resources,
He is only a blundering fool.
The key is such teaching/learning.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

One good at traveling leaves no tracks or prints.
One good at words says nothing flawed or blameworthy.
One good at reckoning does not use bamboo tallies.
One good at locking up has no lock yet what is locked cannot be opened.
One good at tying up has no cord yet what is tied cannot be untied.
This is how the sage is always good at saving people, so no one is discarded,
Always good at saving things, and so nothing is discarded.
This is what is known as maintaining the light.
Thus the good man is the teacher of men who are not good.
Men who are not good are material for the good man.
But if they do not value their teacher, and he does not cherish his material, no matter how wise, one will become greatly lost.
This is called the "profoundly subtle."
(Ⅷ)


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