Chapter 30 How to forbear war.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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30. 1  
A ruler who leans on Tao

This means that the ruler himself is able to lean on Tao.

does not use arms to force the country.

A ruler who leans on Tao makes no use of arms. If he is obedient to heaven, if he makes use of Te, the enemy will surrender of himself.

Such doings are well requited.

Such praiseworthy doings are well requited. If he reproaches himself, he will not be hateful to the people.

Where an army stays, thistles and thorns are growing.

Agriculture is neglected, and the fields are not cultivated.

After a great war there will certainly be bad harvests.

Heaven corresponds to this by sending bad weather that spoils the crops. The crops are [then] very hurtful to men.

The good man is resolute, and that suffices.

Who follows goodness is resolute and daring, and that is sufficient. Then he stops.

He dares not thereby take to force.

He dares not make his name great by resolutely taking to force.

He is resolute and not boastful.

He must resolutely dare to be modest and humble and not to boast and to make himself appear as great.

He is resolute and not aggressive.

He must resolutely dare to decline and not himself aggressively seize what is beautiful.

He is resolute and not insulting.

驕 (haughty) =

He is resolute and unable to act otherwise.

He must resolutely dare to be entirely sincere. He must not be oppressive and unable to act otherwise.

He is resolute and not violent.

He resolutely dares not to apply strong weapons and firm cuirasses in order to hurt and to offend others.

Things grow, then they age.

When herbs and trees have reached the height of their strength, they wither. When man has reached the height of his strength, then he becomes weak and old. This means that strength is unable to last.

This is called to be without Tao.

What is withered and old remains seated and does not walk in Tao.

What is without Tao ends soon.

Who does not walk in

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 夫佳兵者,不祥之器,物或惡之,故有道者不處。君子居則貴左,用兵則貴右。兵者不祥之器,非君子之器,不得已而用之,恬淡為上。勝而不美,而美之者,是樂殺人。夫樂殺人者,則不可以得志於天下矣。吉事尚左,凶事尚右。偏將軍居左,上將軍居右,言以喪禮處之。殺人之衆,以哀悲泣之,戰勝以喪禮處之。

《老子河上公章句·偃武》: 夫佳兵者,不祥之器,物或惡之,故有道者不處。君子居則貴左,用兵則貴右。兵者,不祥之器,非君子之器,不得已而用之。恬淡為上。勝而不美,而美之者,是樂殺人。夫樂殺人者,則不可以得志於天下矣。吉事尚左,凶事尚右,偏將軍居左,上將軍居右。言以喪禮處之。殺人之眾,以哀悲泣之;戰勝,以喪禮處之。

《郭店·老子丙》: 君子居則貴左,用兵則貴右。故曰:兵者,□□□□□□得已而用之。銛襲為上,弗美也。美之,是樂殺人。夫樂□□□□以得志於天下。故吉事上左,喪事上右。是以偏將軍居左,上將軍居右,言以喪禮居之也。故殺□□則以哀悲位之;戰勝,則以喪禮居之。

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: 夫兵者,不祥之器□,物或惡之,故有欲者弗居。君子居則貴左,用兵則貴右。故兵者非君子之器也,□□不祥之器也,不得已而用之,銛襲為上,勿美也。若美之,是樂殺人也。夫樂殺人,不可以得志於天下矣。是以吉事上左,喪事上右。是以便將軍居左,上將軍居右,言以喪禮居之也。殺人眾,以悲依立之,戰勝以喪禮處之。

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 夫兵者,不祥之器也,物或亞□□□□□□□。□子居則貴左,用兵則貴右。故兵者非君子之器;兵者不祥□器也,不得已而用之,銛龍為上,勿美也。若美之,是樂殺人也。夫樂殺人,不可以得志於天下矣。是以吉事□□□□□□,是以偏將軍居左,而上將軍居右,言以喪禮居之也。殺□□□□□立□□朕而以喪禮處之。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

以道佐人主者,謂人主能以道自輔佐也。不以兵強天下。以道自佐之主,不以兵革,順天任德,敵人自服。其事好還。其舉事好還自責,不怨於人也。師之所處,荊棘生焉。農事廢,田不修。大軍之後,必有凶年。天應之以惡氣,即害五穀,盡傷人也。善有果而已,善用兵者,當果敢而已,不美之。不敢以取強。不以果敢取強大之名也。果而勿矜當果敢謙卑,勿自矜大也。果而勿伐,當果敢推讓,勿自伐取其美也。果而勿驕,驕,欺也。果敢勿以驕欺人。果而不得已,當過果敢至誠,不當逼迫不得已也。果而勿強果敢勿以為強兵、堅甲以欺凌人也。物壯則老,草木壯極則枯落,人壯極則衰老也。言強者不可以久。是謂不道。枯老者,坐不行道也。不道早已。不行道者早死。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

He who assists the ruler with Tao does not dominate the world with force. The use of force usually bring requital.
Wherever armies are stationed, briers and thorns grow. Great wars are always followed by famines.
A good (general) achieves his purpose and stops, But dares not seek to dominate the world.
He achieves his purpose but does not brag about it. He achieves his purpose but does not boast about it. He achieves his purpose but is not proud of it. He achieves his purpose but only as an unavoidable step. He achieves his purpose but does not aim to dominate.
(For) after things reach their prime, they begin to grow old, Which means being contrary to Tao. Whatever is contrary to Tao will soon perish.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

One who assists the ruler with Tao,
Does not overpower (ch'iang) the world by military conquests.
Such affairs have a way of returning (huan):
Where armies are stationed,
Briars and thorns grow,
After great campaigns,
Bad years are sure to follow.
The good person is resolute (kuo) only,
But dares not (kan) take the path of the strong (ch'iang).
Be resolute (kuo) yet do not boast (ching),
Be resolute yet do not show off (fa),
Be resolute yet do not be haughty,
Be resolute because you have no choice,
Be resolute yet do not overpower (ch'iang).
When things are full grown, they age.
This is called not following Tao.
Not following Tao they perish early.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

He who assists a ruler of men with Tao does not force the world with arms.
For the actions of arms will be well requited; where armies have been quartered brambles and thorns grow. Great wars are for certain followed by years of scarcity.
He aims only at carrying out relief, and does not venture to force his power upon others.
When relief is done, he will not be assuming, He will not be boastful; he will not be proud; And he will think that he was obliged to do it. So it comes that relief is done without resorting to force.
When things come to the summit of their vigour, they begin to grow old. This is against Tao. What is against Tao will soon come to an end.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
佳 // 佳 // jiā // ① joli ② beau ③ bon // Chinese-French
佳 // 佳 // jiā // ① surname Jia // CC-CEDICT
佳 // 佳 // jiā // ① beautiful ② fine ③ good // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不祥 // 不祥 // bù xiáng // ① sinistre ② inquiétant ③ néfaste // Chinese-French
不祥 // 不祥 // bù xiáng // ① ominous ② inauspicious // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
器 // 器 // qì // ① ustensile ② appareil ③ objet ④ organe ⑤ capacité ⑥ talent // Chinese-French
器 // 器 // qì // ① device ② tool ③ utensil ④ CL:臺|台[tai2] // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
或 // 或 // huò // ① ou ② soit...soit... ③ probablement ④ peut-être // Chinese-French
或 // 或 // huò // ① maybe ② perhaps ③ might ④ possibly ⑤ or // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // è // ① mauvais ② méchant ③ vicieux // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // è // ① evil ② fierce ③ vicious ④ ugly ⑤ coarse ⑥ to harm // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① mal // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① see 惡心|恶心[e3 xin1] // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① haïr ② détestable // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① to hate ② to loathe ③ ashamed ④ to fear ⑤ to slander // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
有道 // 有道 // yǒu dào // ① to have attained the Way ② (of a government or a ruler) enlightened ③ wise and just // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
君子 // 君子 // jūn zǐ // ① homme d'honneur ② gentleman // Chinese-French
君子 // 君子 // jūn zǐ // ① nobleman ② person of noble character // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① gauche ② opposé // Chinese-French
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① surname Zuo // CC-CEDICT
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① left ② the Left (politics) ③ east ④ unorthodox ⑤ queer ⑥ wrong ⑦ differing ⑧ opposite ⑨ variant of 佐[zuo3] // CC-CEDICT
用 // 用 // yòng // ① utiliser ② employer ③ avoir à faire ceci ou cela ④ manger ou boire ⑤ frais ou dépenses ⑥ utilité ⑦ c'est pourquoi ⑧ donc ⑨ par conséquent // Chinese-French
用 // 用 // yòng // ① to use ② to employ ③ to have to ④ to eat or drink ⑤ expense or outlay ⑥ usefulness ⑦ hence ⑧ therefore // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
右 // 右 // yòu // ① droite ② côté droit // Chinese-French
右 // 右 // yòu // ① right (-hand) ② the Right (politics) ③ west (old) // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不祥 // 不祥 // bù xiáng // ① sinistre ② inquiétant ③ néfaste // Chinese-French
不祥 // 不祥 // bù xiáng // ① ominous ② inauspicious // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
器 // 器 // qì // ① ustensile ② appareil ③ objet ④ organe ⑤ capacité ⑥ talent // Chinese-French
器 // 器 // qì // ① device ② tool ③ utensil ④ CL:臺|台[tai2] // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① ne pas ② faux ③ abréviation d'Afrique ④ 175e radical // Chinese-French
非 // 非 // fēi // ① abbr. for 非洲[Fei1 zhou1], Africa // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① to not be ② not ③ wrong ④ incorrect ⑤ non- ⑥ un- ⑦ in- ⑧ to reproach or blame ⑨ (colloquial) to insist on ⑩ simply must // CC-CEDICT
君子 // 君子 // jūn zǐ // ① homme d'honneur ② gentleman // Chinese-French
君子 // 君子 // jūn zǐ // ① nobleman ② person of noble character // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
器 // 器 // qì // ① ustensile ② appareil ③ objet ④ organe ⑤ capacité ⑥ talent // Chinese-French
器 // 器 // qì // ① device ② tool ③ utensil ④ CL:臺|台[tai2] // CC-CEDICT
不得已 // 不得已 // bù dé yǐ // ① à contrecoeur // Chinese-French
不得已 // 不得已 // bù dé yǐ // ① to act against one's will ② to have no alternative but to ③ to have to ④ to have no choice ⑤ must // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
用 // 用 // yòng // ① utiliser ② employer ③ avoir à faire ceci ou cela ④ manger ou boire ⑤ frais ou dépenses ⑥ utilité ⑦ c'est pourquoi ⑧ donc ⑨ par conséquent // Chinese-French
用 // 用 // yòng // ① to use ② to employ ③ to have to ④ to eat or drink ⑤ expense or outlay ⑥ usefulness ⑦ hence ⑧ therefore // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
恬淡 // 恬淡 // tián dàn // ① désintéressé // Chinese-French
恬淡 // 恬淡 // tián dàn // ① quiet and contented ② indifferent to fame or gain // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beau, élégant ② excellent ③ louer ④ abréviation d'Amérique // Chinese-French
美 // 美 // měi // ① the Americas ② abbr. for 美洲[Mei3 zhou1] ③ USA ④ abbr. for 美國|美国[Mei3 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beautiful ② very satisfactory ③ good ④ to beautify ⑤ to be pleased with oneself // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beau, élégant ② excellent ③ louer ④ abréviation d'Amérique // Chinese-French
美 // 美 // měi // ① the Americas ② abbr. for 美洲[Mei3 zhou1] ③ USA ④ abbr. for 美國|美国[Mei3 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beautiful ② very satisfactory ③ good ④ to beautify ⑤ to be pleased with oneself // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① joyeux ② gai // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① surname Le // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① happy ② cheerful ③ to laugh // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① musique // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① surname Yue // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① music // CC-CEDICT
殺人 // 杀人 // shā rén // ① assassiner ② tuer // Chinese-French
殺人 // 杀人 // shā rén // ① homicide ② to murder ③ to kill (a person) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① joyeux ② gai // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① surname Le // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① happy ② cheerful ③ to laugh // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① musique // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① surname Yue // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① music // CC-CEDICT
殺人者 // 杀人者 // shā rén zhě // ① les tueurs (nouvelle) // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
不可以 // 不可以 // bù kě yǐ // ① ne pas pouvoir // Chinese-French
不可以 // 不可以 // bù kě yǐ // ① may not // CC-CEDICT
得誌 // 得志 // dé zhì // ① réaliser ses ambitions ② arriver à ses fins // Chinese-French
得誌 // 得志 // dé zhì // ① to accomplish one's ambition ② a dream come true ③ to enjoy success // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① (finale) : c'est tout // Chinese-French
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① classical final particle, similar to modern 了[le5] // CC-CEDICT
吉事 // 吉事 // jí shì // ① auspicious event // CC-CEDICT
尚 // 尚 // shàng // ① estimer ② encore // Chinese-French
尚 // 尚 // shàng // ① surname Shang // CC-CEDICT
尚 // 尚 // shàng // ① still ② yet ③ to value ④ to esteem // CC-CEDICT
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① gauche ② opposé // Chinese-French
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① surname Zuo // CC-CEDICT
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① left ② the Left (politics) ③ east ④ unorthodox ⑤ queer ⑥ wrong ⑦ differing ⑧ opposite ⑨ variant of 佐[zuo3] // CC-CEDICT
凶事 // 凶事 // xiōng shì // ① fateful accident ② inauspicious matter (involving death or casualties) // CC-CEDICT
尚 // 尚 // shàng // ① estimer ② encore // Chinese-French
尚 // 尚 // shàng // ① surname Shang // CC-CEDICT
尚 // 尚 // shàng // ① still ② yet ③ to value ④ to esteem // CC-CEDICT
右 // 右 // yòu // ① droite ② côté droit // Chinese-French
右 // 右 // yòu // ① right (-hand) ② the Right (politics) ③ west (old) // CC-CEDICT
偏將 // 偏将 // piān jiàng // ① deputy general // CC-CEDICT
軍 // 军 // jūn // ① armée ② troupe // Chinese-French
軍 // 军 // jūn // ① army ② military ③ arms ④ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① gauche ② opposé // Chinese-French
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① surname Zuo // CC-CEDICT
左 // 左 // zuǒ // ① left ② the Left (politics) ③ east ④ unorthodox ⑤ queer ⑥ wrong ⑦ differing ⑧ opposite ⑨ variant of 佐[zuo3] // CC-CEDICT
上將軍 // 上将军 // shàng jiàng jūn // ① commandant en chef // Chinese-French
上將軍 // 上将军 // shàng jiàng jūn // ① top general ② commander-in-chief // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
右 // 右 // yòu // ① droite ② côté droit // Chinese-French
右 // 右 // yòu // ① right (-hand) ② the Right (politics) ③ west (old) // CC-CEDICT
言 // 言 // yán // ① dire ② mot ③ parole ④ opinion ⑤ propos // Chinese-French
言 // 言 // yán // ① words ② speech ③ to say ④ to talk // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
喪禮 // 丧礼 // sāng lǐ // ① enterrement // Chinese-French
喪禮 // 丧礼 // sāng lǐ // ① funeral // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
殺人 // 杀人 // shā rén // ① assassiner ② tuer // Chinese-French
殺人 // 杀人 // shā rén // ① homicide ② to murder ③ to kill (a person) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① nombreux ② foule // Chinese-French
衆 // 众 // zhòng // ① variant of 眾|众[zhong4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
哀 // 哀 // āi // ① douleur ② être affligé ③ lamentation ④ pitié // Chinese-French
哀 // 哀 // āi // ① Ai (c. 2000 BC), sixth of legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God, also known as Li 釐|厘[Li2] // CC-CEDICT
哀 // 哀 // āi // ① sorrow ② grief ③ pity ④ to grieve for ⑤ to pity ⑥ to lament ⑦ to condole // CC-CEDICT
悲泣 // 悲泣 // bēi qì // ① pleurer de douleur // Chinese-French
悲泣 // 悲泣 // bēi qì // ① to weep with grief // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
戰勝 // 战胜 // zhàn shèng // ① vaincre ② l'emporter sur // Chinese-French
戰勝 // 战胜 // zhàn shèng // ① to prevail over ② to defeat ③ to surmount // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
喪禮 // 丧礼 // sāng lǐ // ① enterrement // Chinese-French
喪禮 // 丧礼 // sāng lǐ // ① funeral // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Those who aid a government with the Way
Will not threaten the world with military power,
And are therefore returned with kindness in all affairs.
Where armies have stayed will grow only thorns and bush.
When military force dominates, an inauspicious year follows.
Wise leaders prefer natural results than uses of force.
And win victories that would result naturally.
They win without boasting about their valor,
Or feeling proud of their victories,
Or looking triumphant everywhere.
They win but feel guilty as if they were forced to it.
They win without military reinforcement.
Things that have become strong will begin to weaken.
That which weakens is against the Way.
What is against the Way cannot last long.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

One who would assist the ruler of men in accordance with the Dao does not use military force to gain power over all under Heaven.
As for such matters, he is wont to let them revert.
Where armies deploy, there thistles and thorns grow.
The aftermath of great military operations is surely a year of famine.
One good at this desists when result is had and dares not use the opportunity to seize military supremacy.
Have result but do not take credit for it;
have result but do not boast about it;
have result but do not take pride in it;
have result but only when there is no choice;
have result but do not try to gain military supremacy.
Once a thing reaches its prime, it grows old.
We say it goes against the Dao, and what is against the Dao comes to an early end.
(Ⅷ)


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