Chapter 33 How to discriminate Te.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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33. 1  
Who knows men is wise.

Who is able to know the love and hatred of men, that one is wise.

Who knows himself is enlightened.

If a man is able to know his own worthiness and unworthiness, this means that he reversely hears the soundless and internally perceives the shapeless. Therefore he is called enlightened.

Who vanquishes others possesses strength.

Who is able to vanquish others, only manages it by force.

Who vanquishes himself is strong.

If a man is able to vanquish the desires of his own character, then nobody in the world can fight him. Therefore he is strong.

Who knows contentedness is rich.

Who is able to know what forms the contentedness of contentedness, will long retain luck and prosperity. Therefore he is esteemed.

Who forces his doings has intentions.

Who forces himself to do good deeds has intentions on Tao. And Tao has also intentions on him.

Who does not lose his place is permanent.

Who is able to nourish himself by moderation, does not lose his place. By receiving the essential breath of heaven he is able to endure.

Who dies without perishing is long-lived.

If the eyes do not lose sight, if the ears do not lose hearing, if the mouth does not lose the language, then one is not hated by the empire. Therefore one is able to live long.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 知人者智,自知者明。勝人者有力,自勝者強。知足者富。強行者有志。不失其所者久。死而不亡者壽

《老子河上公章句·辯德》: 知人者智,自知者明。勝人者有力,自勝者強。知足者富,強行者有志,不失其所者久,死而不亡者壽

《馬王堆·老子甲道經》: 知人者知也,自知□□□□□者有力也,自勝者□□□□□□也。強行者有志也。不失其所者久也,死不忘者壽也

《馬王堆·老子乙道經》: 知人者知也,自知明也。朕人者有力也,自朕者強也。知足者富也,強行者有志也。不失其所者久也。死而不忘者壽也。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

知人者智,能知人好惡,是為智。自知者明。人能自知賢與不肖,是為反聽無聲,內視無形,故為明也。勝人者有力,能勝人者,不過以威力也。自勝者強。人能自勝己情欲,則天下無有能與己爭者,故為強也。知足者富,人能知足,則長保福祿,故為富也。強行者有志,人能強力行善,則為有意於道,道亦有意於人。不失其所者久,人能自節養,不失其所受天之精氣,則可以長久。死而不亡者壽。目不妄視,耳不妄聽,口不妄言,則無怨惡於天下,故長壽。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

He who knows others is wise; He who knows himself is enlightened.
He who conquers others has physical strength. He who conquers himself is strong.
He who is contented is rich. He who acts with vigour has will.
He who does not lose his place (with Tao) will endure. He who dies but does not really perish enjoys long life.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

One who knows (chih) others is knowledgeable (chih);
One who knows (chih) the self is enlightened (ming).
One who overcomes others has physical might;
One who overcomes the self (tzu sheng) is strong (ch'iang).
One who knows contentment (chih tsu) is rich;
One who acts strongly (ch'iang) has will power (chih).
One who does not lose where one belongs lasts long;
One who dies without perishing (wang) has longevity.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

He who knows others is wise; He who knows himself is enlightened.
He who conquers others is strong; He who conquers himself is mighty.
He who knows contentment is rich. He who keeps on his course with energy has will.
He who does not deviate from his proper place will long endure. He who may die but not perish has longevity.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
知人者智,自知者明 // 知人者智,自知者明 // zhī rén zhě zhì , zì zhī zhě míng // ① those who understand others are clever, but those who know themselves are truly wise (idiom, from Laozi's 道德經|道德经[Dao4 de2 jing1] // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
有力 // 有力 // yǒu lì // ① énergique ② puissant // Chinese-French
有力 // 有力 // yǒu lì // ① powerful ② forceful ③ vigorous // CC-CEDICT
自 // 自 // zì // ① depuis ② à partir de ③ soi-même ④ naturellement // Chinese-French
自 // 自 // zì // ① self ② oneself ③ from ④ since ⑤ naturally ⑥ surely // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // qiáng // ① fort ② puissant ③ de force // Chinese-French
強 // 强 // qiáng // ① surname Qiang // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // qiáng // ① strong ② powerful ③ better ④ slightly more than ⑤ vigorous ⑥ violent ⑦ best in their category, e.g. see 百強|百强[bai3 qiang2] // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // qiǎng // ① faire un effort ② forcer // Chinese-French
強 // 强 // qiǎng // ① to force ② to compel ③ to strive ④ to make an effort // CC-CEDICT
強 // 强 // jiàng // ① obstiné ② têtu ③ inflexible // Chinese-French
強 // 强 // jiàng // ① stubborn ② unyielding // CC-CEDICT
知足 // 知足 // zhī zú // ① se contenter de ② être satisfait // Chinese-French
知足 // 知足 // zhī zú // ① content with one's situation ② to know contentment (hence happiness) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
富 // 富 // fù // ① riche ② abondant // Chinese-French
富 // 富 // fù // ① surname Fu // CC-CEDICT
富 // 富 // fù // ① rich ② abundant ③ wealthy // CC-CEDICT
強行 // 强行 // qiáng xíng // ① par la force // Chinese-French
強行 // 强行 // qiáng xíng // ① to do sth by force // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
有志 // 有志 // yǒu zhì // ① être ambitieux // Chinese-French
有志 // 有志 // yǒu zhì // ① to be ambitious // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
失 // 失 // shī // ① erreur ② accident ③ perdre // Chinese-French
失 // 失 // shī // ① to lose ② to miss ③ to fail // CC-CEDICT
其所 // 其所 // qí suǒ // ① its place ② one's appointed place ③ the place for that // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
久 // 久 // jiǔ // ① longtemps ② de longue date // Chinese-French
久 // 久 // jiǔ // ① (long) time ② (long) duration of time // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
亡者 // 亡者 // wáng zhě // ① la personne décédée // Chinese-French
亡者 // 亡者 // wáng zhě // ① the deceased // CC-CEDICT
壽 // 寿 // shòu // ① longévité ② anniversaire // Chinese-French
壽 // 寿 // shòu // ① surname Shou // CC-CEDICT
壽 // 寿 // shòu // ① long life ② old age ③ age ④ life ⑤ birthday ⑥ funerary // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

One who knows others is clever.
One who knows one's self is wise.
One who can defeat others has energy.
One who can defeat one's self is strong.
One who is easily satisfied is rich.
One who drives one's self forth has will.
One who never loses one's place lives long.
One who never vanishes after death is eternal.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

One who knows others is wise, but one who knows himself is perspicacious.
One who conquers others has strength, but one who conquers himself is powerful.
One who knows contentment is rich.
One who acts with power has his goal fulfilled.
One who does not lose his place lasts long.
One who dies but is not destroyed has longevity.
(Ⅷ)


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