Chapter 39 On the root of the law.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


39. 1  
Those who of yore reached unity:

昔 “of yore” = 往 in bygone [times]. By unity non-action is meant, as being a child of Tao.

Heaven acquired unity. Thereby it is clear.

This means: Heaven acquired unity. Thereby it is able to suspend the clear lights.

Earth acquired unity. Thereby it is quiet.

This means: Earth acquired unity. Thereby it is able to be quiet and peaceful and to remain unshaken.

The spirits acquired unity. Thereby they are magic-endowed.

This means: The spirits acquired unity. Thereby they are able to change and to become formless.

The valley-streams acquired unity. Thereby they are filled out.

This means: The valley-streams acquired unity. Therefore they may be filled without ceasing to exist.

All beings acquired unity. Thereby they live.

This means: All beings need Tao in order to live.

The princes and the king acquired unity. Thereby they are the just ones of the empire.

This means: The princes and the king acquired unity. Thereby they are able to become pacificators of the empire.

These effect it:

This means that they effect sincerity. It designates the following six matters.

If heaven had not whereby it is clear, it might be feared that it would rend.

This means: Heaven must care alternately for the matters of Yin and Yang, of stringing and unstringing, of day and night. It is not allowed to strive exclusively for the pure lights. For then it is to be feared that it would rend and be no longer heaven.

If earth had not whereby it is tranquil it might be feared that it would collapse.

This means: Earth must have heights and depths, hard and soft parts, the seasons and the five elements. It may not only desire peace unending. Or it is to be feared that it would collapse and be no longer earth.

If the spirits had not whereby they are magic-endowed it might be feared that they would dissolve.

This means: Spirits must be [like] princes and ministers They must not only desire magical powers for time unending. Or it is to be feared that they would dissolve and be no longer spirits.

If valley-streams had not whereby they are filled, it might be feared that they would be emptied.

This means: Valley-streams must have [their] filling and reducing, emptiness and fulness. They must not only desire fulness for time unending. Or it is to be feared that they would dry up and be no longer valley-streams. active and inactive.

If all beings had not whereby they live, it might be feared that they would be destroyed.

This means: All beings are born, grow up and are buried. They must not only desire long life for time unending. Or it is to be feared that they would be destroyed and cease to be beings.

If the princes and the king had not whereby they are honoured, it might be feared that they would fall.

This means: The princes and the king must bend in order to submit to men. They must not cease to look out for worthies. They must not only desire to be honoured and exalted among men for time unending. Or it is to be feared that they would fall and lose their thrones.

Therefore the exalted one uses the low one for his basis.

This means: Who wants to be honoured must look for his basis in lowliness, as Yu and Hou Chi bent down to the plough, as Shun became a potter [on the banks of] the Ho and the Fen, as Chou-kung submitted to Po-wu. This is so.

Highness uses lowness for its foundation.

This means: Who strives for honour and exaltation ought to use the low for his foundation. One begins with the pounded walls in building a palace. One has to lean on the low in order to complete the high. If the low is not secure, then there is the danger of collapsing.

Therefore the princes and the king designate themselves as “the Lone One” and “the Naveless One”.

“The Lone One” symbolizes one who is left to himself. “The Naveless One” symbolizes one who is not able to unite the spokes in himself like a nave.

This is because they make lowliness their basis.

This means: The princes and the king are most revered and honoured, and nevertheless they call themselves “the Lone Ones”. Do they not make lowliness their basis in order to show this to the people?

Is this not so?

An interjection.

Therefore: If one approaches a carriage in order to enumerate [its parts], he will not get a carriage.

致 = 就to approach. If somebody approaches a carriage and enumerates[its parts], there are the spokes, the wheels, the naves, the yoke, the thill, the axle, but nothing to call it a carriage as such. For completeness makes a carriage. Thereby it is exemplified that the princes and the king, if they do not behave according to their names, may complete their dignity.

Do not want to be rare like a gem nor common like a stone.

琭琭 lu-lu exemplifies rarity. 珞珞 lo-lo exemplifies commonness. Of gems there are few. Therefore they appear as estimable. Of stones there are many. Therefore they appear as inferior. It means that one should neither want to be like a gem esteemed by men nor like a stone despised by them. One ought to remain between both [extremes].

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 昔之得一者:天得一以清;地得一以寧;神得一以靈;谷得一以盈;萬物得一以生;侯王得一以為天下貞。其致之,天無以清,將恐裂;地無以寧,將恐發;神無以靈,將恐歇;谷無以盈,將恐竭;萬物無以生,將恐滅;侯王無以貴高將恐蹶。故貴以賤為本,高以下為基。是以侯王自稱孤、寡、不穀。此非以賤為本耶?非乎?故致數譽無譽。不欲琭琭如玉,珞珞如石。

《老子河上公章句·法本》: 昔之得一者:天得一以清,地得一以寧,神得一以靈,谷得一以盈,萬物得一以生,侯王得一以為天下貞。其致之。天無以清將恐裂,地無以寧將恐發,神無以靈將恐歇,谷無以盈將恐竭,萬物無以生將恐滅,侯王無以貴高將恐蹶。故貴以賤為本,高以下為基是以侯王自謂孤、寡、不轂。此非以賤為本邪?非乎!故致數輿無輿,不欲琭琭如玉,珞珞如石。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 昔之得一者:天得一以清;地得□以寧;神得一以霝;浴得一以盈;侯□□□而以為正。其致之也,胃天毌已清將恐□,胃地毌□□將恐□,胃神毌已霝將恐歇,胃浴毌已盈將恐渴,胃侯王毌已貴□□□□□。故必貴而以賤為本,必高矣而以下為基。夫是以侯王自胃□孤寡不穀,此其賤□□與?非□?故致數與無與。是故不欲□□若玉,硌硌□□。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 昔得一者:天得一以清;地得一以寧;神得一以霝;浴得一盈;侯王得一以為天下正。其至也,胃天毌已,清將恐蓮;地毌已寧,將恐發;神毌□□□恐歇;谷毌已□,將渴侯王毌已貴以高將恐蹶。故必貴以賤為本,必高矣而以下為基。夫是以侯王自胃孤、寡、不穀。此其賤之本與?非也。故至數輿無輿。是故不欲祿﹦若玉硌﹦若石。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

昔之得一者:昔,往也。一,無為,道之子也。天得一以清,言天得一故能垂象清明。地得一以寧,言地得一故能安靜不動搖。神得一以靈,言神得一故能變化無形。谷得一以盈,言谷得一故能盈滿而不絕也萬物得一以生,言萬物皆須道以生成也。侯王得一以為天下貞。言侯王得一故能為天下平正其致之。致,誡也。謂下六事也。天無以清將恐裂,言天當有陰陽弛張,晝夜更用,不可但欲清明無已時,將恐分裂不為天。地無以寧將恐發,言地當有高下剛柔,節氣五行,不可但欲安靜無已時,將恐發泄不為地。神無以靈將恐歇,言神當有王相囚死休廢,不可但欲靈變無已時,將恐虛歇不為神。谷無以盈將恐竭,言谷當有盈縮虛實,不可但欲盈滿無已時,將恐枯竭不為谷。萬物無以生將恐滅,言萬物當隨時生死,不可但欲長生無已時,將恐滅亡不為物。侯王無以貴高將恐蹶。言侯王當屈己以下人,汲汲求賢,不可但欲貴高於人無已時,將恐顛蹶失其位。故貴以賤為本,言必欲尊貴,當以薄賤為本,若禹稷躬稼,舜陶河濱,周公下白屋也。高以下為基言必欲尊貴,當以下為本基,猶築牆造功,因卑成高,不下堅固,後必傾危。是以侯王自謂孤、寡、不轂。孤寡喻孤獨,不轂喻不能如車轂為眾輻所湊。此非以賤為本邪?言侯王至尊貴,能以孤寡自稱,此非以賤為本乎,以曉人?非乎!嗟嘆之辭。故致數輿無輿,致,就也。言人就車數之為輻、為輪、為轂、為衡、為轝,無有名為車者,故成為車,以喻侯王不以尊號自名,故能成其貴。不欲琭琭如玉,珞珞如石。琭琭喻少,落落喻多,玉少故見貴,石多故見賤。言不欲如玉為人所貴,如石為人所賤,當處其中也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Of old those that obtained the One: Heaven obtained the One and became clear. Earth obtained the One and became tranquil. The spiritual beings obtained the One and became divine.
The valley obtained the One and became full. The myriad things obtained the One and lived and grew. Kings and barons obtained the One and became rulers of the empire. What made them so is the One.
If heaven had not thus become clear, It would soon crack. If the earth had not thus become tranquil, It would soon be shaken. If the spiritual beings had not thus become divine, They would soon wither away.
If the valley had not thus become full, It would soon become exhausted. If the myriad things had not thus lived and grown, They would soon become extinct. If kings and barons had not thus become honourable and high in position, They would soon fall.
Therefore humble station is the basis of honour. The low is the foundation of the high.
For this reason kings and barons call themselves children without parents, lonely people without spouses, and men without food to eat. Is this not regarding humble station as the basis of honour? Is it not?
Therefore enumerate all the parts of a chariot as you may, and you still have no chariot.
Rather than jingle like the jade, Rumble like the rocks.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Those of old that attain the One:
Heaven attains the One thus is clear,
Earth attains the One thus is peaceful,
Spirits attain the One thus are efficacious,
Valleys attain the One thus are replenished,
Ten thousand beings attain the One thus come to be,
Princes and barons attain the One thus are exalted in the world.
All because they attain the One.
Heaven, without that which renders it clear, might crack,
Earth, without that which renders it peaceful, might explode,
Spirits, without that which makes them efficacious, might cease,
Valleys, without that which replenishes them, might become empty,
Ten thousand beings, without that which sustains them in existence, might become extinct,
Barons and kings, without that which exalts them to high positions, might be toppled.
Therefore the exalted is rooted in the humble,
The high has the low for foundation.
Therefore barons and kings call themselves orphaned, widowed and unworthy.
Is this not taking the humble for one's root?
Is it not?
Therefore the most famous has no fame.
Do not tinkle like jade,
Or chime like stones!
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

From of old the things that have acquired Unity are these:
Heaven by Unity has become clear;
Earth by Unity has become steady;
The Spirit by Unity has become spiritual;
The Valley by Unity has become full;
All things by Unity have come into existence;
Princes and kings by Unity have become rulers of the world.
If heaven were not clear, it would be rent.
If earth were not steady it would be tumbled down.
If the Spirit were not active, it would pass away.
If the Valley were not full, it would be dried up.
If all things were not existing, they would be extinct.
If princes and kings were not rulers, they would be overthrown.
The noble must be styled in terms of the humble;
The high must take the low as their foundation.
Therefore princes and kings must call themselves 'the ignorant', 'the virtueless' and 'the unworthy'.
Does this not mean that they take the humble as their root? What men hate most are 'the ignorant', 'the virtueless' and 'the unworthy'.
And yet princes and kings chose them as their titles.
Therefore the higest fame is to have no fame.
Thus kings are increased by being diminished;
They are diminished by being increased.
It is undesirable to be as prominent as a single gem,
Or as monotonously numerous as stones.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
昔 // 昔 // xī // ① passé // Chinese-French
昔 // 昔 // xī // ① surname Xi // CC-CEDICT
昔 // 昔 // xī // ① former times ② the past ③ Taiwan pr. [xi2] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
天 // 天 // tiān // ① ciel ② jour ③ journée ④ temps ⑤ saison ⑥ nature ⑦ univers // Chinese-French
天 // 天 // tiān // ① day ② sky ③ heaven // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
清 // 清 // qīng // ① clair ② pur ③ distinct ④ net ⑤ liquider // Chinese-French
清 // 清 // qīng // ① Qing or Ch'ing dynasty of Imperial China (1644-1911) ② surname Qing // CC-CEDICT
清 // 清 // qīng // ① clear ② distinct ③ quiet ④ just and honest ⑤ pure ⑥ to settle or clear up ⑦ to clean up or purge // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // de // ① (particule placée devant le verbe qui transforme un adjectif en adverbe) ② -ment // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // de // ① -ly ② structural particle: used before a verb or adjective, linking it to preceding modifying adverbial adjunct // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // dì // ① masse ② terre ③ terrain ④ lieu // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // dì // ① earth ② ground ③ field ④ place ⑤ land ⑥ CL:片[pian4] // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
寧 // 宁 // nìng // ① plutôt que ② préférer ③ préférable // Chinese-French
寧 // 宁 // nìng // ① would rather ② to prefer ③ how (emphatic) ④ Taiwan pr. [ning2] // CC-CEDICT
寧 // 宁 // níng // ① abbr. for Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 寧夏回族自治區|宁夏回族自治区[Ning2 xia4 Hui2 zu2 Zi4 zhi4 qu1] ② abbr. for Nanjing 南京[Nan2 jing1] ③ surname Ning // CC-CEDICT
寧 // 宁 // níng // ① peaceful ② to pacify ③ to visit (one's parents etc) // CC-CEDICT
神 // 神 // shén // ① dieu ② esprit ③ expression ④ air ⑤ énergie // Chinese-French
神 // 神 // shén // ① God ② abbr. for 神舟[Shen2 zhou1] // CC-CEDICT
神 // 神 // shén // ① deity ② soul ③ spirit ④ unusual ⑤ mysterious ⑥ lively ⑦ expressive ⑧ expression ⑨ look ⑩ CL:個|个[ge4] ⑪ (slang) awesome ⑫ amazing // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
靈 // 灵 // líng // ① cercueil ② habile ③ fin ④ efficace // Chinese-French
靈 // 灵 // líng // ① quick ② alert ③ efficacious ④ effective ⑤ to come true ⑥ spirit ⑦ departed soul ⑧ coffin // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① valley // CC-CEDICT
穀 // 谷 // gǔ // ① grain ② corn // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // yù // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① plein ② abondant ③ être plein (rempli, comble) de ④ dépasser ⑤ excéder ⑥ avoir un surplus de ⑦ avoir en excédent // Chinese-French
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① full ② filled ③ surplus // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① marquis ② noble ou haut fonctionnaire // Chinese-French
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① surname Hou // CC-CEDICT
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① marquis, second of the five orders of ancient Chinese nobility 五等爵位[wu3 deng3 jue2 wei4] ② nobleman or high official // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① roi ② prince ③ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wáng // ① surname Wang // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① king or monarch ② best or strongest of its type ③ grand ④ great // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wàng // ① régner sur // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wàng // ① to rule ② to reign over // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
貞 // 贞 // zhēn // ① chaste ② pur ③ droit ④ vertueux // Chinese-French
貞 // 贞 // zhēn // ① chaste // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
致 // 致 // zhì // ① adresser ② causer ③ entraîner ④ s'appliquer à // Chinese-French
致 // 致 // zhì // ① to send ② to devote ③ to deliver ④ to cause ⑤ to convey // CC-CEDICT
緻 // 致 // zhì // ① fine ② delicate // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
天 // 天 // tiān // ① ciel ② jour ③ journée ④ temps ⑤ saison ⑥ nature ⑦ univers // Chinese-French
天 // 天 // tiān // ① day ② sky ③ heaven // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
清 // 清 // qīng // ① clair ② pur ③ distinct ④ net ⑤ liquider // Chinese-French
清 // 清 // qīng // ① Qing or Ch'ing dynasty of Imperial China (1644-1911) ② surname Qing // CC-CEDICT
清 // 清 // qīng // ① clear ② distinct ③ quiet ④ just and honest ⑤ pure ⑥ to settle or clear up ⑦ to clean up or purge // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① craindre ② peut-être ③ sans doute // Chinese-French
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① afraid ② frightened ③ to fear // CC-CEDICT
裂 // 裂 // liè // ① se fendre ② crever // Chinese-French
裂 // 裂 // liè // ① to split ② to crack ③ to break open ④ to rend // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // de // ① (particule placée devant le verbe qui transforme un adjectif en adverbe) ② -ment // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // de // ① -ly ② structural particle: used before a verb or adjective, linking it to preceding modifying adverbial adjunct // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // dì // ① masse ② terre ③ terrain ④ lieu // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // dì // ① earth ② ground ③ field ④ place ⑤ land ⑥ CL:片[pian4] // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
寧 // 宁 // nìng // ① plutôt que ② préférer ③ préférable // Chinese-French
寧 // 宁 // nìng // ① would rather ② to prefer ③ how (emphatic) ④ Taiwan pr. [ning2] // CC-CEDICT
寧 // 宁 // níng // ① abbr. for Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 寧夏回族自治區|宁夏回族自治区[Ning2 xia4 Hui2 zu2 Zi4 zhi4 qu1] ② abbr. for Nanjing 南京[Nan2 jing1] ③ surname Ning // CC-CEDICT
寧 // 宁 // níng // ① peaceful ② to pacify ③ to visit (one's parents etc) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① craindre ② peut-être ③ sans doute // Chinese-French
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① afraid ② frightened ③ to fear // CC-CEDICT
發 // 发 // fā // ① envoyer ② montrer (un sentiment) ③ questionner ④ mettre au point // Chinese-French
發 // 发 // fā // ① to send out ② to show (one's feeling) ③ to issue ④ to develop ⑤ to make a bundle of money ⑥ classifier for gunshots (rounds) // CC-CEDICT
神 // 神 // shén // ① dieu ② esprit ③ expression ④ air ⑤ énergie // Chinese-French
神 // 神 // shén // ① God ② abbr. for 神舟[Shen2 zhou1] // CC-CEDICT
神 // 神 // shén // ① deity ② soul ③ spirit ④ unusual ⑤ mysterious ⑥ lively ⑦ expressive ⑧ expression ⑨ look ⑩ CL:個|个[ge4] ⑪ (slang) awesome ⑫ amazing // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
靈 // 灵 // líng // ① cercueil ② habile ③ fin ④ efficace // Chinese-French
靈 // 灵 // líng // ① quick ② alert ③ efficacious ④ effective ⑤ to come true ⑥ spirit ⑦ departed soul ⑧ coffin // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① craindre ② peut-être ③ sans doute // Chinese-French
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① afraid ② frightened ③ to fear // CC-CEDICT
歇 // 歇 // xiē // ① se reposer ② faire une pause // Chinese-French
歇 // 歇 // xiē // ① to rest ② to take a break ③ to stop ④ to halt ⑤ (dialect) to sleep ⑥ a moment ⑦ a short while // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① valley // CC-CEDICT
穀 // 谷 // gǔ // ① grain ② corn // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // yù // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① plein ② abondant ③ être plein (rempli, comble) de ④ dépasser ⑤ excéder ⑥ avoir un surplus de ⑦ avoir en excédent // Chinese-French
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① full ② filled ③ surplus // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① craindre ② peut-être ③ sans doute // Chinese-French
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① afraid ② frightened ③ to fear // CC-CEDICT
竭 // 竭 // jié // ① épuiser ② employer entièrement // Chinese-French
竭 // 竭 // jié // ① to exhaust // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① craindre ② peut-être ③ sans doute // Chinese-French
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① afraid ② frightened ③ to fear // CC-CEDICT
滅 // 灭 // miè // ① éteindre ② exterminer // Chinese-French
滅 // 灭 // miè // ① to extinguish or put out ② to go out (of a fire etc) ③ to exterminate or wipe out ④ to drown // CC-CEDICT
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① marquis ② noble ou haut fonctionnaire // Chinese-French
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① surname Hou // CC-CEDICT
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① marquis, second of the five orders of ancient Chinese nobility 五等爵位[wu3 deng3 jue2 wei4] ② nobleman or high official // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① roi ② prince ③ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wáng // ① surname Wang // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① king or monarch ② best or strongest of its type ③ grand ④ great // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wàng // ① régner sur // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wàng // ① to rule ② to reign over // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
高 // 高 // gāo // ① haut ② élevé ③ grand ④ supérieur // Chinese-French
高 // 高 // gāo // ① surname Gao // CC-CEDICT
高 // 高 // gāo // ① high ② tall ③ above average ④ loud ⑤ your (honorific) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① craindre ② peut-être ③ sans doute // Chinese-French
恐 // 恐 // kǒng // ① afraid ② frightened ③ to fear // CC-CEDICT
蹶 // 蹶 // jué // ① trébucher ② fouler aux pieds // Chinese-French
蹶 // 蹶 // jué // ① to stumble ② to trample ③ to kick (of horse) // CC-CEDICT
蹶 // 蹶 // juě // ① tomber // Chinese-French
蹶 // 蹶 // juě // ① see 尥蹶子[liao4 jue3 zi5] // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
賤 // 贱 // jiàn // ① bon marché ② bas ③ humble // Chinese-French
賤 // 贱 // jiàn // ① inexpensive ② lowly // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
本 // 本 // běn // ① racine ② tige ③ fondation ④ origine ⑤ capital ⑥ principal ⑦ base ⑧ celui-ci ⑨ (classificateur pour les livres, cahier ⑩ carnet, etc.) // Chinese-French
本 // 本 // běn // ① root ② stem ③ origin ④ source ⑤ this ⑥ the current ⑦ original ⑧ inherent ⑨ originally ⑩ classifier for books, periodicals, files etc // CC-CEDICT
高 // 高 // gāo // ① haut ② élevé ③ grand ④ supérieur // Chinese-French
高 // 高 // gāo // ① surname Gao // CC-CEDICT
高 // 高 // gāo // ① high ② tall ③ above average ④ loud ⑤ your (honorific) // CC-CEDICT
以下 // 以下 // yǐ xià // ① au-dessous ② en-dessous ③ suivant // Chinese-French
以下 // 以下 // yǐ xià // ① that level or lower ② that amount or less ③ the following // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
基 // 基 // jī // ① fondement ② fondation ③ propriétés // Chinese-French
基 // 基 // jī // ① base ② foundation ③ basic ④ radical (chemistry) ⑤ (slang) gay // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① marquis ② noble ou haut fonctionnaire // Chinese-French
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① surname Hou // CC-CEDICT
侯 // 侯 // hóu // ① marquis, second of the five orders of ancient Chinese nobility 五等爵位[wu3 deng3 jue2 wei4] ② nobleman or high official // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① roi ② prince ③ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wáng // ① surname Wang // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① king or monarch ② best or strongest of its type ③ grand ④ great // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wàng // ① régner sur // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wàng // ① to rule ② to reign over // CC-CEDICT
自稱 // 自称 // zì chēng // ① se prétendre ② se déclarer // Chinese-French
自稱 // 自称 // zì chēng // ① to call oneself ② to claim to be ③ to profess ④ to claim a title // CC-CEDICT
孤 // 孤 // gū // ① solitaire ② isolé // Chinese-French
孤 // 孤 // gū // ① lone ② lonely // CC-CEDICT
寡 // 寡 // guǎ // ① peu ② fade ③ monotone ④ veuve // Chinese-French
寡 // 寡 // guǎ // ① few ② scant ③ widowed // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
穀 // 谷 // gǔ // ① grain ② corn // CC-CEDICT
此 // 此 // cǐ // ① ce ② ici // Chinese-French
此 // 此 // cǐ // ① this ② these // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① ne pas ② faux ③ abréviation d'Afrique ④ 175e radical // Chinese-French
非 // 非 // fēi // ① abbr. for 非洲[Fei1 zhou1], Africa // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① to not be ② not ③ wrong ④ incorrect ⑤ non- ⑥ un- ⑦ in- ⑧ to reproach or blame ⑨ (colloquial) to insist on ⑩ simply must // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
賤 // 贱 // jiàn // ① bon marché ② bas ③ humble // Chinese-French
賤 // 贱 // jiàn // ① inexpensive ② lowly // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
本 // 本 // běn // ① racine ② tige ③ fondation ④ origine ⑤ capital ⑥ principal ⑦ base ⑧ celui-ci ⑨ (classificateur pour les livres, cahier ⑩ carnet, etc.) // Chinese-French
本 // 本 // běn // ① root ② stem ③ origin ④ source ⑤ this ⑥ the current ⑦ original ⑧ inherent ⑨ originally ⑩ classifier for books, periodicals, files etc // CC-CEDICT
耶 // 耶 // yē // ① (phonetic ye) // CC-CEDICT
耶 // 耶 // yé // ① interrogative particle (classical) // CC-CEDICT
耶 // 耶 // ye // ① final particle indicating enthusiasm etc // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① ne pas ② faux ③ abréviation d'Afrique ④ 175e radical // Chinese-French
非 // 非 // fēi // ① abbr. for 非洲[Fei1 zhou1], Africa // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① to not be ② not ③ wrong ④ incorrect ⑤ non- ⑥ un- ⑦ in- ⑧ to reproach or blame ⑨ (colloquial) to insist on ⑩ simply must // CC-CEDICT
乎 // 乎 // hū // ① à ② dans ③ de ④ vers ⑤ (part. interrog.) // Chinese-French
乎 // 乎 // hū // ① (classical particle similar to 於|于[yu2]) in ② at ③ from ④ because ⑤ than ⑥ (classical final particle similar to 嗎|吗[ma5], 吧[ba5], 呢[ne5], expressing question, doubt or astonishment) // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
致 // 致 // zhì // ① adresser ② causer ③ entraîner ④ s'appliquer à // Chinese-French
致 // 致 // zhì // ① to send ② to devote ③ to deliver ④ to cause ⑤ to convey // CC-CEDICT
緻 // 致 // zhì // ① fine ② delicate // CC-CEDICT
數 // 数 // shù // ① nombre ② qqs, plusieurs // Chinese-French
數 // 数 // shù // ① number ② figure ③ several ④ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
數 // 数 // shǔ // ① compter // Chinese-French
數 // 数 // shǔ // ① to count ② to count as ③ to regard as ④ to enumerate (sb's shortcomings) // CC-CEDICT
數 // 数 // shuò // ① nombre // Chinese-French
數 // 数 // shuò // ① frequently ② repeatedly // CC-CEDICT
譽 // 誉 // yù // ① réputation ② louer // Chinese-French
譽 // 誉 // yù // ① to praise ② to acclaim ③ reputation // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
譽 // 誉 // yù // ① réputation ② louer // Chinese-French
譽 // 誉 // yù // ① to praise ② to acclaim ③ reputation // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
琭 // 琭 // lù // ① (jade) // CC-CEDICT
琭 // 琭 // lù // ① (jade) // CC-CEDICT
如 // 如 // rú // ① si ② conformément à ③ selon ④ par exemple ⑤ comme si ⑥ être comparable ⑦ égaler // Chinese-French
如 // 如 // rú // ① as ② as if ③ such as // CC-CEDICT
玉 // 玉 // yù // ① jade ② pierre précieuse ③ beau, précieux ④ votre (Pol.) ⑤ 96e radical // Chinese-French
玉 // 玉 // yù // ① jade // CC-CEDICT
珞 // 珞 // luò // ① neck-ornament // CC-CEDICT
珞 // 珞 // luò // ① neck-ornament // CC-CEDICT
如 // 如 // rú // ① si ② conformément à ③ selon ④ par exemple ⑤ comme si ⑥ être comparable ⑦ égaler // Chinese-French
如 // 如 // rú // ① as ② as if ③ such as // CC-CEDICT
石 // 石 // shí // ① pierre // Chinese-French
石 // 石 // shí // ① surname Shi // CC-CEDICT
石 // 石 // shí // ① rock ② stone ③ stone inscription ④ one of the eight ancient musical instruments 八音[ba1 yin1] // CC-CEDICT
石 // 石 // dàn // ① dry measure for grain equal to ten dou 斗 ② ten pecks ③ one hundred liters // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Achievement of oneness in the past includes:
The heaven that became clear,
The earth that became peaceful,
The soul that became sensitive,
And kings that became the world's leaders.
The following can be inferred:
The heaven will break
If it can by no means clear up;
The earth will be wasteland
If it can by no means be peaceful;
The soul will die out
If it can by no means be sensitive;
And kings will go rampant
If they can by no means lead the world.
Therefore,
Nobility is rooted in the ordinary people,
And the high is based on the low.
The kings take names
Like "the Isolated," "the Helpless," or "the Wicked,"
Just because they appreciate their roots and bases.
Therefore,
The most glorious does not seek after glory,
And the wisest does not seek to be the beautiful jade
But the unrefined rough rock.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

As for those who obtained the One long, long ago,
Heaven is pure by having obtained the One;
Earth is stable by having obtained the One;
the gods have their spiritual power by having obtained the One;
valleys can be filled by having obtained the One;
the myriad things live by having obtained the One;
lords and princes provide constancy to all under Heaven by having obtained the One.
This is how they attain to these states.
If Heaven had not this means to be pure, it would, we fear, deteriorate.
If Earth had not this means to be stable, it would, we fear, disintegrate.
If the gods had not this means to have spiritual power, they would, we fear, terminate.
If valleys had not this means to achieve fullness, they would, we fear, dry up.
If the myriad things had not this means to live, they would, we fear, expire.
If lords and princes did not have this means to achieve loftiness and nobility, they would, we fear, collapse.
Thus it is that nobility uses humility as its roots and loftiness uses lowliness as its foundation.
This is why lords and princes refer to themselves as "the orphan," "the widower," or "the unworthy."
Is this not using humility as the roots?
Is this not so?
Therefore the ultimate number of praises amounts to no praise, so one wants neither "he glows with luster like the jade" nor "he is as hard as hard can be like the stone."
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

39 







Home