Chapter 42 On the changes of Tao.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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42. 1  
Tao generates one. One generates two. Two generate three. Three generate all things.

Tao generates one: what Tao generates in the beginning, is one. One generates two: it generates Yin and Yang. Two generate three: Yin and Yang generate the harmonious, the clear and the turbid, the three atmospheres which are divided into heaven, earth and man. Three generate all beings: heaven, earth and man together generate everything. Heaven expands, earth changes, man educates and nourishes.

All things turn away from Yin and embrace Yang.

Among all things there is none which did not turn away from Yin and embrace Yang. They improve on the same day.

The empty breath effects union.

In all things there is the original breath. Thereby they reach their union with weakness, as within the breast there are the intestines, within the bones there is the marrow, within plants there is emptiness. The harmonious breath secretly pervades them. Thereby they obtain long life.

What is odious to men, that are orphans, widows and “naveless ones”. But king and dukes take these for their designations.

Orphan, widow and “naveless one” are unlucky names, but the princes and the king take them for their designations. Remain in humility, take emptiness for your model and become united to weakness.

Thereby some of the creatures lose it and win,

By attracting it, it is not won. If repelled, it is sure to return.

win it and lose.

Who exalts himself, breaks down. Who strives for riches, gets into misfortune.

What others teach,

This means the teachings of others with regard to the flight from weakness and the practice of strength, the flight from tenderness and the practice of hardness.

I teach it too.

He says: I teach men to flee from strength and to practise weakness, to flee from hardness and to practise tenderness.

The violent ones do not reach their [natural] death.

The violent ones are those who do not believe in the mystery and rebel against Tao and Te. They do not follow the classical doctrines, honour power and use violence. They do not reach their [natural] death, because heaven cuts off [their life]. Weapons attack them, the king’s law kills them. They do not reach the [natural] death of their life.

I want to make these the fathers of my doctrine.

The father is the beginning. Lao-tse makes of the men of violence the beginning of the commandments of his doctrine.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 道生一,一生二,二生三,三生萬物。萬物負陰而抱陽,沖氣以為和。人之所惡,唯孤、寡、不穀,而王公以為稱。故物或損之而益,或益之而損。人之所教,我亦教之。強梁者不得其死,吾將以為教父。

《老子河上公章句·道化》: 道生一,一生二,二生三,三生萬物。萬物負陰而抱陽,沖氣以為和。人之所惡,惟孤﹑寡﹑不穀,而王公以為稱。故物或損之而益,或益之而損。人之所教,我亦教之。強梁者不得其死,吾將以為教父。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 道生一,一生二,二生三,三生□□□□□□□□□□□以為和。人之所亞,唯孤、寡、不穀,而王公以自□□□□□□□云云之而益。□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□吾將以□□父。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

道生一,道使所生者一也。一生二,一生陰與陽也。二生三,陰陽生和、清、濁三氣,分為天地人也。三生萬物。天地人共生萬物也,天施地化,人長養之也。萬物負陰而抱陽,萬物無不負陰而向陽,迴心而就日。沖氣以為和。萬物中皆有元氣,得以和柔,若胸中有藏,骨中有髓,草木中有空虛與氣通,故得久生也。人之所惡,惟孤﹑寡﹑不穀,而王公以為稱。孤寡不轂者,不祥之名,而王公以為稱者,處謙卑,法空虛和柔。故物或損之而益,引之不得,推之必還。或益之而損。夫增高者志崩,貪富者致患。人之所教,謂眾人所教,去弱為強,去柔為剛。我亦教之。言我教眾人,使去強為弱,去柔為剛。強梁者不得其死,強粱者,謂不信玄妙,背叛道德,不從經教,尚勢任力也。 不得其死者,為天命所絕,兵刃所伐,王法所殺,不得以壽命死。吾將以為教父。父,使也。老子以強梁之人為教,誡之始也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Tao produced the One. The One produced the two. The two produced the three. And the three produced the ten thousand things.
The ten thousand things carry the yin and embrace the yang, and through the blending of the material force they achieve harmony.
People hate to be children without parents, lonely people without spouses, or men without food to eat, And yet kings and lords call themselves by these names.
Therefore it is often the case that things gain by losing and lose by gaining.
What others have taught, I teach also: "Violent and fierce people do not die a natural death." I shall make this the father of my teaching.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Tao gives birth to one,
One gives birth to two,
Two gives birth to three,
Three gives birth to ten thousand beings.
Ten thousand beings carry yin on their backs and embrace yang in their front,
Blending these two vital breaths (ch'i) to attain harmony (ho).
What people hate most,
Are to be orphaned, widowed and unworthy.
Yet kings and dukes call themselves by these.
Thus things are either decreased so as to be increased,
Or increased (i) so as to be decreased (sun).
What others teach,
I also teach:
"The strong and violent (ch'iang liang) do not die a natural death."
This I shall hold as the father (fu) of my teaching.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Tao begets one; one begets two; two begets three; three begets all things. All things are backed by the Shade, (yin) and faced by the light (yang), and harmonised by the immaterial Breath (ch'i).
What others teach, I also teach: 'The daring and violent do not die a natural death.' This (maxim) I shall regard as my instructor.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
道生 // 道生 // dào shēng // ① Daosheng // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // ① 1 (nombre) ② un // Chinese-French
一 // 一 // yī // "① one ② 1 ③ single ④ a (article) ⑤ as soon as ⑥ entire ⑦ whole ⑧ all ⑨ throughout ⑩ ""one"" radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1) ⑪ also pr. [yao1] for greater clarity when spelling out numbers digit by digit" // CC-CEDICT
一生 // 一生 // yī shēng // ① toute la vie // Chinese-French
一生 // 一生 // yī shēng // ① all one's life ② throughout one's life // CC-CEDICT
二 // 二 // èr // ① 2 (nombre) // Chinese-French
二 // 二 // èr // ① two ② 2 ③ (Beijing dialect) stupid // CC-CEDICT
二 // 二 // èr // ① 2 (nombre) // Chinese-French
二 // 二 // èr // ① two ② 2 ③ (Beijing dialect) stupid // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① trois // Chinese-French
三 // 三 // sān // ① surname San // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① three ② 3 // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① trois // Chinese-French
三 // 三 // sān // ① surname San // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① three ② 3 // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
負 // 负 // fù // ① porter ② se charger de ③ jouir de ④ trahir // Chinese-French
負 // 负 // fù // ① to bear ② to carry (on one's back) ③ to turn one's back on ④ to be defeated ⑤ negative (math. etc) // CC-CEDICT
陰 // 阴 // yīn // ① yin ② (principe féminin, opposé du yang) ③ ombre ④ nuageux ⑤ sombre ⑥ lunaire ⑦ sournois ⑧ sinistre ⑨ négatif (électricité) ⑩ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
陰 // 阴 // yīn // ① surname Yin // CC-CEDICT
陰 // 阴 // yīn // ① overcast (weather) ② cloudy ③ shady ④ Yin (the negative principle of Yin and Yang) ⑤ negative (electric.) ⑥ feminine ⑦ moon ⑧ implicit ⑨ hidden ⑩ genitalia // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
抱 // 抱 // bào // ① tenir ② étreindre ③ serrer dans ses bras ④ enlacer ⑤ chérir ⑥ entourer // Chinese-French
抱 // 抱 // bào // ① to hold ② to carry (in one's arms) ③ to hug ④ to embrace ⑤ to surround ⑥ to cherish // CC-CEDICT
陽 // 阳 // yáng // ① yang ② (principe mâle, opposé au yin) ③ soleil ④ éclairé ⑤ masculin ⑥ positif (électricité) ⑦ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
陽 // 阳 // yáng // ① positive (electric.) ② sun ③ male principle (Taoism) ④ Yang, opposite: 陰|阴[yin1] ☯ // CC-CEDICT
沖 // 冲 // chōng // ① (of water) to dash against ② to mix with water ③ to infuse ④ to rinse ⑤ to flush ⑥ to develop (a film) ⑦ to rise in the air ⑧ to clash ⑨ to collide with // CC-CEDICT
氣 // 气 // qì // ① gaz ② air ③ souffle ④ odeur ⑤ vigueur ⑥ énergie ⑦ irriter // Chinese-French
氣 // 气 // qì // ① gas ② air ③ smell ④ weather ⑤ to make angry ⑥ to annoy ⑦ to get angry ⑧ vital energy ⑨ qi // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hé // ① et ② avec ③ harmonie ④ paix ⑤ union // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // hé // ① surname He ② Japanese (food, clothes etc) // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hé // "① and ② together with ③ with ④ sum ⑤ union ⑥ peace ⑦ harmony ⑧ Taiwan pr. [han4] when it means ""and"" or ""with""" // CC-CEDICT
咊 // 和 // hé // ① old variant of 和[he2] // CC-CEDICT
龢 // 和 // hé // ① old variant of 和[he2] ② harmonious // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hè // ① poésie // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // hè // ① to compose a poem in reply (to sb's poem) using the same rhyme sequence ② to join in the singing ③ to chime in with others // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // hú // ① to complete a set in mahjong or playing cards // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // huó // ① doux // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // huó // ① to combine a powdery substance (flour, plaster etc) with water ② Taiwan pr. [huo4] // CC-CEDICT
和 // 和 // huò // ① pétrir ② mêler // Chinese-French
和 // 和 // huò // ① to mix (ingredients) together ② to blend ③ classifier for rinses of clothes ④ classifier for boilings of medicinal herbs // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // è // ① mauvais ② méchant ③ vicieux // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // è // ① evil ② fierce ③ vicious ④ ugly ⑤ coarse ⑥ to harm // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① mal // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // ě // ① see 惡心|恶心[e3 xin1] // CC-CEDICT
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① haïr ② détestable // Chinese-French
惡 // 恶 // wù // ① to hate ② to loathe ③ ashamed ④ to fear ⑤ to slander // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
孤 // 孤 // gū // ① solitaire ② isolé // Chinese-French
孤 // 孤 // gū // ① lone ② lonely // CC-CEDICT
寡 // 寡 // guǎ // ① peu ② fade ③ monotone ④ veuve // Chinese-French
寡 // 寡 // guǎ // ① few ② scant ③ widowed // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
穀 // 谷 // gǔ // ① grain ② corn // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
王公 // 王公 // wáng gōng // ① les princes et les ducs ② la haute noblesse // Chinese-French
王公 // 王公 // wáng gōng // ① princes and dukes ② aristocrat // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
稱 // 称 // chēng // ① appeler ② s'appeler ③ nom ④ exprimer ⑤ peser // Chinese-French
稱 // 称 // chēng // ① to weigh ② to state ③ to name ④ name ⑤ appellation ⑥ to praise // CC-CEDICT
稱 // 称 // chèn // ① correspondre à ② aller bien ensemble ③ s'assortir ④ s'harmoniser ⑤ convenir ⑥ être conforme à // Chinese-French
稱 // 称 // chèn // ① to fit ② balanced ③ suitable // CC-CEDICT
稱 // 称 // chèng // ① variant of 秤[cheng4] ② steelyard // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
或 // 或 // huò // ① ou ② soit...soit... ③ probablement ④ peut-être // Chinese-French
或 // 或 // huò // ① maybe ② perhaps ③ might ④ possibly ⑤ or // CC-CEDICT
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① perdre ② diminuer ③ réduire ④ nuire à ⑤ endommager // Chinese-French
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① to decrease ② to lose ③ to damage ④ to harm ⑤ (coll.) to speak sarcastically ⑥ to deride ⑦ caustic ⑧ mean ⑨ one of the 64 trigrams of the Book of Changes (old) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
益 // 益 // yì // ① profitable ② avantageux ③ profit ④ avantage // Chinese-French
益 // 益 // yì // ① surname Yi // CC-CEDICT
益 // 益 // yì // ① benefit ② profit ③ advantage ④ beneficial ⑤ to increase ⑥ to add ⑦ all the more // CC-CEDICT
或 // 或 // huò // ① ou ② soit...soit... ③ probablement ④ peut-être // Chinese-French
或 // 或 // huò // ① maybe ② perhaps ③ might ④ possibly ⑤ or // CC-CEDICT
益 // 益 // yì // ① profitable ② avantageux ③ profit ④ avantage // Chinese-French
益 // 益 // yì // ① surname Yi // CC-CEDICT
益 // 益 // yì // ① benefit ② profit ③ advantage ④ beneficial ⑤ to increase ⑥ to add ⑦ all the more // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① perdre ② diminuer ③ réduire ④ nuire à ⑤ endommager // Chinese-French
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① to decrease ② to lose ③ to damage ④ to harm ⑤ (coll.) to speak sarcastically ⑥ to deride ⑦ caustic ⑧ mean ⑨ one of the 64 trigrams of the Book of Changes (old) // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiào // ① enseigner ② apprendre qch à qqn ③ religion ④ faire faire ⑤ ordonner // Chinese-French
教 // 教 // jiào // ① surname Jiao // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiào // ① religion ② teaching ③ to make ④ to cause ⑤ to tell // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiāo // ① enseigner ② apprendre qch à qqn // Chinese-French
教 // 教 // jiāo // ① to teach // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① aussi ② également // Chinese-French
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① also // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiào // ① enseigner ② apprendre qch à qqn ③ religion ④ faire faire ⑤ ordonner // Chinese-French
教 // 教 // jiào // ① surname Jiao // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiào // ① religion ② teaching ③ to make ④ to cause ⑤ to tell // CC-CEDICT
教 // 教 // jiāo // ① enseigner ② apprendre qch à qqn // Chinese-French
教 // 教 // jiāo // ① to teach // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
強梁 // 强梁 // qiáng liáng // ① ruffian ② bully // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不得 // 不得 // bù dé // ① il ne faut pas ② il n'est pas permis de ③ on ne doit pas // Chinese-French
不得 // 不得 // bù dé // ① must not ② may not ③ not to be allowed ④ cannot // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
教父 // 教父 // jiào fù // ① godfather ② parrain (religion) // Chinese-French
教父 // 教父 // jiào fù // ① godfather // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The Way produces one.
One produces two.
Two produces three.
Three produces everything.
Everything has polar elements in it
That interact to achieve harmony.
People all hate being isolated, helpless and wicked,
But kings use these words as their titles.
Therefore, things can gain from losses
And can lose because of gainings.
I just teach what I have been taught.
Those who willfully go against the Way
Will die an undue death,
And are fit to be my textbook.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The Dao begets the One;
the One begets two;
two beget three;
and three beget the myriad things.
The myriad things, bearing yin and embracing yang, form a unified harmony through the fusing of these vital forces.
What people most hate are "the orphan," "the widower," and "the unworthy," yet lords and princes use these terms to refer to themselves.
Thus it is that some are augmented by being diminished, and others are diminished by being augmented.
What others teach, I also teach.
The dangerously bold do not get to die a natural death, so I am going to use them as the fathers of my teaching.
(Ⅷ)


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