Chapter 45 How to cause Te to overflow.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


45. 1  
Great perfection seems broken.

This means a prince entirely perfect in Tao and Te. Who seems broken annihilates the name and hides the praise. To seem broken is to be imperfect.

Its use does not wear out.

Who uses his mind in this manner, does not wear out but fulfils his time.

Great fulness seems empty.

This means a prince entirely filled out by Tao and Te. Who seems empty, though he be honoured, he does not dare being haughty. Though rich, he does not dare being prodigal.

Its use is inexhaustible.

Who uses his mind in this manner, is not to be exhausted.

Great straightness seems bent.

Great straightness means to cultivate Tao, to take measure for a model and to be correctly straight like unity. Who seems bent, does not contend with the vulgar, as if he were able to bend or to break.

Great cleverness seems stupid.

Great cleverness means to have many talents and accomplishments. Who seems stupid looks as if he did not dare to show his abilities.

Great eloquence seems to stammer.

A great orator is wise and does not falter. Who seems to stammer is unable to express himself.

Motion overcomes cold.

To overcome is the extreme. In spring and summer the Yang air moves quickly upwards, and all things become perfected. After the acme has been reached, it gets cold. If it is cold, then there is desolation, death and ruin. This means that man ought not to move quickly.

Stillness overcomes heat.

In autumn and winter all things remain quietly below the yellow springs. After the acme has been reached, it gets warm. Warmth is the source of life.

Through clarity and stillness one becomes the regulator of the empire.

If one is able to be clear and still, then one will become the head of the empire. If one keeps to what is right, one does not end one’s time of life.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 大成若缺,其用不弊。大盈若沖,其用不窮。大直若屈,大巧若拙,大辯若訥。躁勝寒靜勝熱。清靜為天下正

《老子河上公章句·洪德》: 大成若缺,其用不弊,大盈若沖,其用不窮。大直若屈,大巧若拙,大辯若訥。躁勝寒,靜勝熱,清靜能為天下正。

《郭店·老子乙》: 大成若缺,其用不敝。大盈若盅,其用不窮。大巧若拙,大呈若詘,大直若屈。燥勝凔,清勝熱,清靜為天下正。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 大成若缺,其用不幣。大盈若沖,其用不窮。大直如詘,大巧如拙,大贏如炳。趮勝寒靚勝炅。請靚可以為天下正。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: □□□□□□□□□盈如沖,其□□□□□□□□□□□□巧如掘,□□□絀。趮朕寒□□□□□□□□□□□□。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

大成若缺,謂道德大成之君也。 若缺者,滅名藏譽,如毀缺不備也。其用不弊,其用心如是,則無敝盡時也。大盈若沖,謂道德大盈滿之君也。 若沖者,貴不敢驕也,富不敢奢也。其用不窮。其用心如是,則無窮盡時也。大直若屈,大直,謂修道法度正直如一也。 若屈者,不與俗人爭,若可屈折。大巧若拙,大巧謂多才術也。 若拙者,亦不敢見其能。大辯若訥。大辯者,智無疑。若訥者,口無辟躁勝寒,勝,極也。春夏陽氣躁疾於上,萬物盛大,極則寒,寒則零落死亡也。言人不當剛躁也。靜勝熱,秋冬萬物靜於黃泉之下,極則熱,熱者生之源。清靜能為天下正。能清靜則為天下之長,持身正則無終已時也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

What is most perfect seems to be incomplete; But its utility is unimpaired. What is most full seems to be empty; But its usefulness is inexhaustible. What is most straight seems to be crooked.
The greatest skill seems to be clumsy. The greatest eloquence seems to stutter.
Hasty movement overcomes cold, (But) tranquility overcomes heat. By being greatly tranquil, One is qualified to be the ruler of the world.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Great perfection appears lacking (ch'üeh),
Its use is unending.
Great fullness appears empty,
Its use is inexhaustible.
Great straightness appears bent,
Great ingenuity (ch'iao) appears crude,
Great eloquence (pien) appears inarticulate.
When agitation (tsao) wins (sheng), the cold arrives,
When tranquillity (ching) wins (sheng), the hot arrives.
Clear and tranquil the world is in the right mode (cheng).
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

The greatest perfection seems imperfect;
Yet its use will last without decay.
The greatest fullness seems empty;
Yet its use cannot be exhausted.
The greatest straightness seems crooked.
The greatest dexterity seems awkward;
The greatest eloquence seems stammering.
Activity overcomes cold;
Quietness overcomes heat.
Only through purity and quietude can the world be ruled.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
缺 // 缺 // quē // ① incomplet ② insuffisance ③ manque ④ place vacante ⑤ manquer de // Chinese-French
缺 // 缺 // quē // ① deficiency ② lack ③ scarce ④ vacant post ⑤ to run short of // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
用 // 用 // yòng // ① utiliser ② employer ③ avoir à faire ceci ou cela ④ manger ou boire ⑤ frais ou dépenses ⑥ utilité ⑦ c'est pourquoi ⑧ donc ⑨ par conséquent // Chinese-French
用 // 用 // yòng // ① to use ② to employ ③ to have to ④ to eat or drink ⑤ expense or outlay ⑥ usefulness ⑦ hence ⑧ therefore // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
弊 // 弊 // bì // ① fraude ② abus ③ mal ④ désavantage ⑤ défaite ⑥ un dommage // Chinese-French
弊 // 弊 // bì // ① detriment ② fraud ③ harm ④ defeat // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① plein ② abondant ③ être plein (rempli, comble) de ④ dépasser ⑤ excéder ⑥ avoir un surplus de ⑦ avoir en excédent // Chinese-French
盈 // 盈 // yíng // ① full ② filled ③ surplus // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
沖 // 冲 // chōng // ① (of water) to dash against ② to mix with water ③ to infuse ④ to rinse ⑤ to flush ⑥ to develop (a film) ⑦ to rise in the air ⑧ to clash ⑨ to collide with // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
用 // 用 // yòng // ① utiliser ② employer ③ avoir à faire ceci ou cela ④ manger ou boire ⑤ frais ou dépenses ⑥ utilité ⑦ c'est pourquoi ⑧ donc ⑨ par conséquent // Chinese-French
用 // 用 // yòng // ① to use ② to employ ③ to have to ④ to eat or drink ⑤ expense or outlay ⑥ usefulness ⑦ hence ⑧ therefore // CC-CEDICT
不窮 // 不穷 // bù qióng // ① sans fin ② sans bornes ③ inépuisable // Chinese-French
不窮 // 不穷 // bù qióng // ① endless ② boundless ③ inexhaustible // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
直 // 直 // zhí // ① directement ② sans cesse ③ redresser ④ droit ⑤ vertical ⑥ franc ⑦ sincère // Chinese-French
直 // 直 // zhí // ① surname Zhi ② Zhi (c. 2000 BC), fifth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
直 // 直 // zhí // ① straight ② to straighten ③ fair and reasonable ④ frank ⑤ straightforward ⑥ (indicates continuing motion or action) ⑦ vertical ⑧ vertical downward stroke in Chinese characters // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
屈 // 屈 // qū // ① injustice ② plier ③ fléchir ④ se soumettre // Chinese-French
屈 // 屈 // qū // ① surname Qu // CC-CEDICT
屈 // 屈 // qū // ① bent ② to feel wronged // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
巧 // 巧 // qiǎo // ① habile ② par hasard // Chinese-French
巧 // 巧 // qiǎo // ① opportunely ② coincidentally ③ as it happens ④ skillful ⑤ timely // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
拙 // 拙 // zhuō // ① maladroit ② gauche // Chinese-French
拙 // 拙 // zhuō // ① awkward ② clumsy ③ dull ④ inelegant ⑤ (polite) my ⑥ Taiwan pr. [zhuo2] // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
辯 // 辩 // biàn // ① discuter ② débattre ③ argumenter // Chinese-French
辯 // 辩 // biàn // ① to dispute ② to debate ③ to argue ④ to discuss // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
訥 // 讷 // nè // ① lent // Chinese-French
訥 // 讷 // nè // ① to speak slowly ② inarticulate // CC-CEDICT
躁 // 躁 // zào // ① impatient ② ardent // Chinese-French
躁 // 躁 // zào // ① hot-tempered ② impatient // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
寒 // 寒 // hán // ① froid ② pauvre // Chinese-French
寒 // 寒 // hán // ① cold ② poor ③ to tremble // CC-CEDICT
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① calme ② silencieux // Chinese-French
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① still ② calm ③ quiet ④ not moving // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
熱 // 热 // rè // ① chaud ② ardent ③ affectionné // Chinese-French
熱 // 热 // rè // ① to warm up ② to heat up ③ hot (of weather) ④ heat ⑤ fervent // CC-CEDICT
清靜 // 清静 // qīng jìng // ① quiet ② peaceful and quiet // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① droit ② positif ③ correct ④ justement ⑤ précisément // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① straight ② upright ③ proper ④ main ⑤ principal ⑥ to correct ⑦ to rectify ⑧ exactly ⑨ just (at that time) ⑩ right (in that place) ⑪ (math.) positive // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① (calendrier) nouveau // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① first month of the lunar year // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The perfect seems defective, but can be used limitlessly.
The truly full seems empty, but can be used endlessly.
The straight seems crooked.
The truly artful seems clumsy.
The most eloquent seems tongue-tied.
Peace outdoes turmoil, and cold heat.
Peace is therefore the best policy.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Great completion seems incomplete, but its functioning is never exhausted.
Great fullness seems empty, but its functioning is limitless.
Great straightness seems crooked.
Great skill seems clumsy.
Great eloquence seems inarticulate.
Although the heat of activity conquers cold, quietude conquers heat, so pure quietude is the right way to govern all under Heaven.
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

45 







Home