Chapter 51 How to nourish Te.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


51. 1  
Tao generates them.

Tao generates all beings.

Te nourishes them.

Te is unity. Unity generates and spreads the breath and nourishes it.

It forms them into things and shapes.

Unity creates all things and forms their shapes.

By power it completes them.

Unity creates all things and effects the power of the breath of cold and heat. Thereby it completes them.

Therefore there are none among all beings that did not honour Tao and esteem Te.

What Tao and Te effect is entirely perfect. If you are unquiet, you should honour them.

Tao is honoured and Te esteemed. Now they command nobody but remain always natural.

Tao is the One which does not command. Though it calls forth all creatures, it always remains natural. They correspond to it like the shadow and the echo.

Therefore Tao generates them, nourishes them, makes them grow, educates them, perfects them, warms them, feeds them, protects them.

Tao’s relation to things not only consists in its begetting them, as if that were enough. It causes them to grow, nourishes, perfects, warms, protects and educates them. It induces everything to become perfect according to its own nature. A prince who governs a country and practises asceticism ought to resemble it.

It generates without possessing.

Tao generates all things but keeps none of them to make profit.

It acts without making claims.

If Tao completes something, it does not look out for a requital.

It educates without governing.

Though Tao educates and nourishes everything, it does not govern [things] in order to put them to use.

This is called mysterious Te.

Benevolent Te which Tao sets in motion is mysterious. It is impossible to behold.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 道生之,德畜之,物形之,勢成之。是以萬物莫不尊道而貴德。道之尊,德之貴,夫莫之命常自然。故道生之,德畜之;長之育之;亭之毒之;養之覆之。生而不有,為而不恃,長而不宰,是謂玄德。

《老子河上公章句·養德》: 道生之,德畜之,物形之,勢成之。是以萬物莫不尊道而貴德。道之尊,德之貴,夫莫之命而常自然。故道生之,德畜之,長之育之,成之孰之,養之覆之。生而不有,為而不恃,長而不宰,是謂玄德。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 道生之而德畜之,物刑之而器成之。是以萬物尊道而貴□。□之尊,德之貴也,夫莫之爵而恆自祭也。道生之,畜之,長之,遂之,亭之,□之,□□□□□□弗有也,為而弗寺也,長而弗宰也。此之謂玄德。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 道生之,德畜之,物刑之,而器成之。是以萬物尊道而貴德。道之尊也,德之貴也,夫莫之爵也,而恆自然也。道生之,畜□□□□之,亭之,毒之,養之,復□□□□□□□□□□□弗宰,是胃玄德。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

道生之,道生萬物。德畜之,德,一也。一主布氣而蓄養物形之,一為萬物設形像也。勢成之。一為萬物作寒暑之勢以成之。是以萬物莫不尊道而貴德。道德所為,無不盡驚動,而尊敬之。道之尊,德之貴,夫莫之命而常自然。道一不命召萬物,而常自然應之如影響。故道生之,德畜之,長之育之,成之孰之,養之覆之。道之於萬物,非但生而已,乃復長養、成孰、覆育,全其性命。 人君治國治身,亦當如是也。生而不有,道生萬物,不有所取以為利也。為而不恃,道所施為,不恃望其報也。長而不宰,道長養萬物,不宰割以為利也。是謂玄德。道之所行恩德,玄闇不可得見。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Tao produces them. Virtue fosters them. Matter gives them physical form. The circumstances and tendencies complete them. Therefore the ten thousand things esteem Tao and honour virtue.
Tao is esteemed and virtue is honoured without anyone's order! They always come spontaneously. Therefore the Tao produces them and virtue fosters them. They rear them and develop them. They give them security and give them peace. They nurture them and protect them.
(Tao) produces them but does not take possession of them. It acts, but does not rely on its own ability. It leads them but does not master them. This is called profound and secret virtue.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Tao gives birth,
Te rears (hsü),
Things (wu) shape,
Circumstances (shih) complete.
Therefore the ten thousand things,
None do not respect Tao and treasure te.
Tao is respected,
Te is treasured,
Not by decree (ming),
But by spontaneity (tzu-jan).
Therefore Tao gives birth,
Te keeps, grows, nurtures, matures, ripens, covers and buries.
To give birth without possession,
To act (wei) without holding on to,
To grow (chang) without lording over,
This is called the dark te.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Tao produces them (all things);
Virtue feeds them;
All of them appear in different forms;
Each is perfect by being given power.
Therefore none of the numerous things does not honour Tao and esteem virtue.
The honouring of Tao and the esteem of virtue are done, not by command, but always of their own accord. Therefore Tao produces them, makes them grow, nourishes them, shelters them, brings them up and protects them.
When all things come into being, Tao does not reject them.
It produces them without holding possession of them.
It acts without depending upon them, and raises them without lording it over them.
When merits are accomplished, it does not lay claim to them.
Because it does not lay claim to them, therefore it does not lose them.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
道生 // 道生 // dào shēng // ① Daosheng // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
畜 // 畜 // chù // ① bestiaux ② animaux domestiques // Chinese-French
畜 // 畜 // chù // ① livestock ② domesticated animal ③ domestic animal // CC-CEDICT
畜 // 畜 // xù // ① élever ② nourrir // Chinese-French
畜 // 畜 // xù // ① to raise (animals) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
形 // 形 // xíng // ① paraître ② comparer ③ forme ④ corps ⑤ silhouette // Chinese-French
形 // 形 // xíng // ① to appear ② to look ③ form ④ shape // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
勢 // 势 // shì // ① puissance ② force ③ tendance ④ configuration ⑤ situation // Chinese-French
勢 // 势 // shì // ① power ② influence ③ potential ④ momentum ⑤ tendency ⑥ trend ⑦ situation ⑧ conditions ⑨ outward appearance ⑩ sign ⑪ gesture ⑫ male genitals // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
莫不 // 莫不 // mò bù // ① none doesn't ② there is none who isn't ③ everyone // CC-CEDICT
尊 // 尊 // zūn // ① honorable ② honorer ③ vénérer ④ vase ⑤ (classificateur des canons, idoles, images...) // Chinese-French
尊 // 尊 // zūn // ① senior ② of a senior generation ③ to honor ④ to respect ⑤ honorific ⑥ classifier for cannons and statues ⑦ ancient wine vessel // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
貴德 // 贵德 // guì dé // ① Xian de Guide // Chinese-French
貴德 // 贵德 // guì dé // ① Guide county in Hainan Tibetan autonomous prefecture 海南藏族自治州[Hai3 nan2 Zang4 zu2 Zi4 zhi4 zhou1], Qinghai // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
尊 // 尊 // zūn // ① honorable ② honorer ③ vénérer ④ vase ⑤ (classificateur des canons, idoles, images...) // Chinese-French
尊 // 尊 // zūn // ① senior ② of a senior generation ③ to honor ④ to respect ⑤ honorific ⑥ classifier for cannons and statues ⑦ ancient wine vessel // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① ne...pas ② sans // Chinese-French
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① surname Mo // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① do not ② there is none who // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
命 // 命 // mìng // ① vie ② sort ③ fortune ④ destin ⑤ ordonner ⑥ ordre ⑦ commandement // Chinese-French
命 // 命 // mìng // ① life ② fate ③ order or command ④ to assign a name, title etc // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① souvent ② fréquemment ③ ordinaire ④ commun ⑤ constant ⑥ invariable // Chinese-French
常 // 常 // cháng // ① surname Chang // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① always ② ever ③ often ④ frequently ⑤ common ⑥ general ⑦ constant // CC-CEDICT
自然 // 自然 // zì rán // ① nature ② naturel // Chinese-French
自然 // 自然 // zì rán // ① nature ② natural ③ naturally // CC-CEDICT
故道 // 故道 // gù dào // ① ancienne route // Chinese-French
故道 // 故道 // gù dào // ① old road ② old way ③ old course (of a river) // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
畜 // 畜 // chù // ① bestiaux ② animaux domestiques // Chinese-French
畜 // 畜 // chù // ① livestock ② domesticated animal ③ domestic animal // CC-CEDICT
畜 // 畜 // xù // ① élever ② nourrir // Chinese-French
畜 // 畜 // xù // ① to raise (animals) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
長 // 长 // cháng // ① long ② durable // Chinese-French
長 // 长 // cháng // ① length ② long ③ forever ④ always ⑤ constantly // CC-CEDICT
長 // 长 // zhǎng // ① chef ② tête ③ aîné ④ grandir ⑤ développer ⑥ accroître ⑦ renforcer // Chinese-French
長 // 长 // zhǎng // ① chief ② head ③ elder ④ to grow ⑤ to develop ⑥ to increase ⑦ to enhance // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
育 // 育 // yù // ① éducation ② procréer ③ enfanter ④ nourrir ⑤ instruire // Chinese-French
育 // 育 // yù // ① to have children ② to raise or bring up ③ to educate // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
亭 // 亭 // tíng // ① kiosque ② pavillon // Chinese-French
亭 // 亭 // tíng // ① pavilion ② booth ③ kiosk ④ erect // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
毒 // 毒 // dú // ① empoisonner ② empoisonné ③ venimeux ④ toxique ⑤ méchant ⑥ cruel ⑦ poison ⑧ toxique ⑨ drogue // Chinese-French
毒 // 毒 // dú // ① poison ② to poison ③ poisonous ④ malicious ⑤ cruel ⑥ fierce ⑦ narcotics // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
養 // 养 // yǎng // ① nourrir ② entretenir ③ élever ④ se soigner // Chinese-French
養 // 养 // yǎng // ① to raise (animals) ② to bring up (children) ③ to keep (pets) ④ to support ⑤ to give birth // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
覆 // 复 // fù // ① répondre ② recommencer ③ renouveler ④ tourner ⑤ retourner ⑥ de nouveau // Chinese-French
覆 // 复 // fù // ① variant of 復|复[fu4] ② to reply to a letter // CC-CEDICT
覆 // 覆 // fù // ① couvrir ② recouvrir ③ renverser // Chinese-French
覆 // 覆 // fù // ① to cover ② to overflow ③ to overturn ④ to capsize // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
恃 // 恃 // shì // ① s'appuyer sur ② compter sur // Chinese-French
恃 // 恃 // shì // ① to rely on ② mother (formal) // CC-CEDICT
長 // 长 // cháng // ① long ② durable // Chinese-French
長 // 长 // cháng // ① length ② long ③ forever ④ always ⑤ constantly // CC-CEDICT
長 // 长 // zhǎng // ① chef ② tête ③ aîné ④ grandir ⑤ développer ⑥ accroître ⑦ renforcer // Chinese-French
長 // 长 // zhǎng // ① chief ② head ③ elder ④ to grow ⑤ to develop ⑥ to increase ⑦ to enhance // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
宰 // 宰 // zǎi // ① gouvernement ② tuer ③ abattre ④ diriger ⑤ gouverner ⑥ prendre la charge de // Chinese-French
宰 // 宰 // zǎi // ① to slaughter livestock ② to govern or rule ③ to cheat customers ④ imperial official in dynastic China // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① mystérieux ② obscur ③ incroyable // Chinese-French
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① black ② mysterious // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Things are produced by the Way,
Cultivated by their accumulation through time,
Realized in their forms by substances,
And guided in their development
By the potential in specific circumstances.
Therefore, everything respects the Way
And values what has been accumulated in the culture.
In the respected Way and valued accumulation,
Things grow and develop
By following their natural courses.
That's why we say that things are produced by the Way,
And, through diachronic accumulation, reared,
Cultivated, developed, matured, and protected naturally.
That process is the basic moral model for providers:
Produce without possessing anything,
Achieve without showing off anything,
And lead without making personal decisions.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The Dao gives life to them; virtue nurtures them, matter gives them physical form, and characteristic potential completes them.
This is why the myriad things without exception must honor the Dao and esteem virtue.
This honoring of the Dao and this esteeming of virtue, none are ordered to do so, yet it always happens spontaneously.
The Dao gives them life, and virtue nurtures them, that is, grows them, rears them, ensures them their proper shapes, matures them, and protects them.
He gives them life yet possesses them not.
He acts, yet they do not depend on him.
They mature, yet he is not their steward.
This we call mysterious virtue.
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

51 







Home