Chapter 54 How to cultivate insight.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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54. 1  
Who is well-founded, will not be torn out.

建 = 立 to found. Who by means of Tao well founds the personality and the country, cannot be disrooted and torn out.

Who is well protected, will not be taken away.

Who by means of Tao well protects the spirits, cannot in the end be torn out and taken away.

The sacrifices brought by children and grandsons will not be cut off.

輟 = to cut off. If the sons and grandsons of a man are able to cultivate Tao in this way, they will live long and be deathless. From generation to generation they will without interruption continue to sacrifice to their ancestors.

Who cultivates it in his body, his Te is able to be true.

Who cultivates Tao within his body, saves his breath, nourishes his spirits, augments his life, accumulates his years. If his Te be such, than he will become a true man.

Who cultivates it in his family, his Te will then be overflowing.

When asceticism is practised within the family, when the father is kind and the son filial, when the elder brother is friendly and the younger obedient, when the husband is sincere and the wife chaste, when Te is such, then there will be abundance of happiness which is going to reach down to the sons and grandsons of coming generations.

Who cultivates it in his village, his Te will be enduring.

When Tao is cultivated within the village, when one behaves respectfully towards the elders, when one loves and nourishes the youngsters, when one educates the stupid yokels, when Te is such, then there is nothing which it did not protect.

Who cultivates it in his country, his Te will be abundant.

When Tao is cultivated within the country, then the prince will be sincere, the ministers will be true, humanity and justice will flourish spontaneously, ritual and music will develop spontaneously, and the government will be peaceful and unselfish. When Te is such, then it will be abundant.

Who cultivates it within the empire, his Te will then be general.

When the prince cultivates Tao within the empire, when he does not speak but improve, when he does not teach but govern, when the subjects really correspond to the prince like shadow and echo, when Te is such, then it is general.

Therefore by means of the personality regard the personality.

By means of a person cultivating Tao regard a person not cultivating it. Who will perish and who will remain?

By means of the family regard the family.

By means of a family not cultivating Tao regard one that cultivates it.

By means of the village regard the village.

By means of a village not cultivating Tao regard one cultivating it.

By means of the country regard the country.

By means of a country cultivating Tao regard one not cultivating it.

By means of the empire regard the empire.

By means of a prince cultivating Tao regard one who does not cultivate it.

How do I know the empire to be such? By this.

Lao-tse says: How do I come to know the empire ? Who cultivates Tao, rises; who does not cultivate it, perishes. By this I see and know it.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 善建不拔,善抱者不脫,子孫以祭祀不輟。修之於身,其德乃真;修之於家,其德乃餘;修之於鄉,其德乃長;修之於國,其德乃豐;修之於天下,其德乃普。故以身觀身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以國觀國,以天下觀天下。吾何以知天下然哉?以此。

《老子河上公章句·修觀》: 善建者不拔,善抱者不脫,子孫祭祀不輟。修之於身,其德乃真,修之於家,其德乃餘,修之於鄉,其德乃長,修之於國,其德乃豐,修之於天下,其德乃普。故以身觀身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以國觀國,以天下觀天下。吾何以知天下之然哉,以此。

《郭店·老子乙》: 善建者不拔,善抱者不脫,子孫以其祭祀不輟。修之身,其德乃真。修之家,其德有餘。修之鄉,其德乃長。修之邦,其德乃豐。修之天下□□□□□□□□□□□家,以鄉觀鄉,以邦觀邦,以天下觀天下。吾何以知天□□□□□□

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 善建□□撥,□□□□□,子孫以祭祀□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□餘;脩之□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□以身□身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以邦觀邦,以天□觀□□□□□□□□□□□□□。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 善建者□□□□□□□,子孫以祭祀不絕。脩之身,其德乃真;脩之家,其德有餘;脩之鄉,其德乃長;脩之國,其德乃夆;脩之天下,其德乃博。以身觀身,以家觀□□□□國,以天下觀天下。吾何□知天下之然?茲以□。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

善建者不拔,建,立也。善以道立身立國者,不可得引而拔之。善抱者不脫,善以道抱精神者,終不可拔引解脫。子孫祭祀不輟。為人子孫能修道如是,長生不死,世世以久,祭祀先祖,宗廟無絕時。修之於身,其德乃真,修道於身,愛氣養神,益壽延年。其德如是,乃為真人。修之於家,其德乃餘,修道於家,父慈子孝,兄友弟順,夫信妻貞。 其德如是,乃有餘慶及於來世子孫。修之於鄉,其德乃長,修道於鄉,尊敬長老,愛養幼少,教誨愚鄙。 其德如是,乃無不覆及也。修之於國,其德乃豐,修道於國,則君信臣忠,仁義自生,禮樂自興,政平無私。 其德如是,乃為豐厚也。修之於天下,其德乃普。人主修道於天下,不言而化,不教而治,下之應上,信如影響。 其德如是,乃為普博。故以身觀身,以修道之身,觀不修道之身,孰亡孰存也。以家觀家,以修道之家,觀不修道之家。以鄉觀鄉,以修道之鄉,觀不修道之鄉也。以國觀國,以修道之國,觀不修道之國也。以天下觀天下。以修道之主,觀不修道之主也。吾何以知天下之然哉,以此。老子言,吾何知天下修道者昌,背道者亡。以此五事觀而知之也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

He who is well established (in Tao) cannot be pulled away. He who has a firm grasp (of Tao) cannot be separated from it. Thus from generation to generation his ancestral sacrifice will never be suspended.
When one cultivates virtue in his person, it becomes genuine virtue. When one cultivates virtue in his family, it becomes overflowing virtue. When one cultivates virtue in his community, it becomes lasting virtue. When one cultivates virtue in his country, it becomes abundant virtue. When one cultivates virtue in the world, it becomes universal.
Therefore the person should be viewed as a person. The family should be viewed as a family. The community should be viewed as a community. The country should be viewed as a country. And the world should be viewed as the world.
How do I know this to be the case in the world? Through this.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

One who is well established is not uprooted,
One who embraces firmly cannot be separated from,
Thus sons and grandsons shall perform sacrifices without interruptions.
In cultivating this in one's person,
The person's te becomes genuine;
In cultivating this in the family,
The family's te has more to spare (yü);
In cultivating this in the village,
The village's te grows strong;
In cultivating this in the state,
The state's te becomes abundant;
In cultivating this in the world (t'ien hsia),
The world's te becomes universal.
Therefore observe (kuan) the person by the person,
Observe the family by the family,
Observe the village by the village,
Observe the state by the state,
Observe the world by the world.
How do I know such is the case in the world?
Through this.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

What is planted by the best planter can never be removed;
What is embraced by the best embracer can never be loosened.
Thus his children and grandchildren will be able to continue their ancestral sacrifice for endless generations.
If he applies Tao to himself his virtue will be genuine;
If he applies it to his family his virtue will be abundant;
If he applies it to his villiage his virtue will be lasting;
If he applies it to his country his virtue will be full;
If he applies it to the world his virtue will be universal.
Therefore by one's person one may observe persons;
By one's family one may observe families;
By one's village one may observe villages;
By one's country one may observe countries;
By one's world, one may observe worlds.
How do I know that the world may be so (governed by Tao)?
By this (observation).
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
建 // 建 // jiàn // ① construire ② bâtir ③ fonder ④ établir // Chinese-French
建 // 建 // jiàn // ① to establish ② to found ③ to set up ④ to build ⑤ to construct // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
拔 // 拔 // bá // ① tirer ② arracher // Chinese-French
拔 // 拔 // bá // ① to pull up ② to pull out ③ to draw out by suction ④ to select ⑤ to pick ⑥ to stand out (above level) ⑦ to surpass ⑧ to seize // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
抱 // 抱 // bào // ① tenir ② étreindre ③ serrer dans ses bras ④ enlacer ⑤ chérir ⑥ entourer // Chinese-French
抱 // 抱 // bào // ① to hold ② to carry (in one's arms) ③ to hug ④ to embrace ⑤ to surround ⑥ to cherish // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
脫 // 脱 // tuō // ① enlever ② ôter // Chinese-French
脫 // 脱 // tuō // ① to shed ② to take off ③ to escape ④ to get away from // CC-CEDICT
子孫 // 子孙 // zǐ sūn // ① descendants ② postérité // Chinese-French
子孫 // 子孙 // zǐ sūn // ① offspring ② posterity // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
祭祀 // 祭祀 // jì sì // ① faire un sacrifice // Chinese-French
祭祀 // 祭祀 // jì sì // ① to offer sacrifices to the gods or ancestors // CC-CEDICT
不輟 // 不辍 // bù chuò // ① incessant ② implacable // Chinese-French
不輟 // 不辍 // bù chuò // ① incessant ② relentless // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① réparer ② rédiger ③ composer ④ construire ⑤ tailler // Chinese-French
修 // 修 // xiū // ① surname Xiu // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① to decorate ② to embellish ③ to repair ④ to build ⑤ to write ⑥ to cultivate ⑦ to study ⑧ to take (a class) // CC-CEDICT
脩 // 修 // xiū // ① dried meat ② private teacher's remuneration ③ withered ④ variant of 修[xiu1] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① être ② mais ③ cependant ④ alors ⑤ donc // Chinese-French
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① to be ② thus ③ so ④ therefore ⑤ then ⑥ only ⑦ thereupon // CC-CEDICT
廼 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
迺 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
真 // 真 // zhēn // ① vraiment ② réellement ③ vrai ④ véritable // Chinese-French
真 // 真 // zhēn // ① really ② truly ③ indeed ④ real ⑤ true ⑥ genuine // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① réparer ② rédiger ③ composer ④ construire ⑤ tailler // Chinese-French
修 // 修 // xiū // ① surname Xiu // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① to decorate ② to embellish ③ to repair ④ to build ⑤ to write ⑥ to cultivate ⑦ to study ⑧ to take (a class) // CC-CEDICT
脩 // 修 // xiū // ① dried meat ② private teacher's remuneration ③ withered ④ variant of 修[xiu1] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
家 // 家 // jiā // ① famille ② foyer ③ maison ④ domicile ⑤ expert ⑥ spécialiste ⑦ école // Chinese-French
家 // 家 // jiā // ① surname Jia // CC-CEDICT
家 // 家 // jiā // ① home ② family ③ (polite) my (sister, uncle etc) ④ classifier for families or businesses ⑤ refers to the philosophical schools of pre-Han China ⑥ noun suffix for a specialist in some activity, such as a musician or revolutionary, corresponding to English -ist, -er, -ary or -ian ⑦ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
傢 // 家 // jiā // ① see 傢伙|家伙[jia1 huo5] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① être ② mais ③ cependant ④ alors ⑤ donc // Chinese-French
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① to be ② thus ③ so ④ therefore ⑤ then ⑥ only ⑦ thereupon // CC-CEDICT
廼 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
迺 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
餘 // 余 // yú // ① en surplus ② en trop // Chinese-French
餘 // 余 // yú // ① extra ② surplus ③ remaining ④ remainder after division ⑤ (following numerical value) or more ⑥ in excess of (some number) ⑦ residue (math.) ⑧ after ⑨ I ⑩ me // CC-CEDICT
餘 // 馀 // yú // ① moi ② mon ③ surplus ④ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
餘 // 馀 // yú // ① surname Yu // CC-CEDICT
餘 // 馀 // yú // ① variant of 餘|余[yu2], remainder // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① réparer ② rédiger ③ composer ④ construire ⑤ tailler // Chinese-French
修 // 修 // xiū // ① surname Xiu // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① to decorate ② to embellish ③ to repair ④ to build ⑤ to write ⑥ to cultivate ⑦ to study ⑧ to take (a class) // CC-CEDICT
脩 // 修 // xiū // ① dried meat ② private teacher's remuneration ③ withered ④ variant of 修[xiu1] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
鄉 // 乡 // xiāng // ① village // Chinese-French
鄉 // 乡 // xiāng // ① country or countryside ② native place ③ home village or town ④ township (PRC administrative unit) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① être ② mais ③ cependant ④ alors ⑤ donc // Chinese-French
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① to be ② thus ③ so ④ therefore ⑤ then ⑥ only ⑦ thereupon // CC-CEDICT
廼 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
迺 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
長 // 长 // cháng // ① long ② durable // Chinese-French
長 // 长 // cháng // ① length ② long ③ forever ④ always ⑤ constantly // CC-CEDICT
長 // 长 // zhǎng // ① chef ② tête ③ aîné ④ grandir ⑤ développer ⑥ accroître ⑦ renforcer // Chinese-French
長 // 长 // zhǎng // ① chief ② head ③ elder ④ to grow ⑤ to develop ⑥ to increase ⑦ to enhance // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① réparer ② rédiger ③ composer ④ construire ⑤ tailler // Chinese-French
修 // 修 // xiū // ① surname Xiu // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① to decorate ② to embellish ③ to repair ④ to build ⑤ to write ⑥ to cultivate ⑦ to study ⑧ to take (a class) // CC-CEDICT
脩 // 修 // xiū // ① dried meat ② private teacher's remuneration ③ withered ④ variant of 修[xiu1] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① être ② mais ③ cependant ④ alors ⑤ donc // Chinese-French
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① to be ② thus ③ so ④ therefore ⑤ then ⑥ only ⑦ thereupon // CC-CEDICT
廼 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
迺 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
豐 // 丰 // fēng // ① abondant ② plein ③ grand // Chinese-French
豐 // 丰 // fēng // ① surname Feng // CC-CEDICT
豐 // 丰 // fēng // ① abundant ② plentiful ③ fertile ④ plump ⑤ great // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① réparer ② rédiger ③ composer ④ construire ⑤ tailler // Chinese-French
修 // 修 // xiū // ① surname Xiu // CC-CEDICT
修 // 修 // xiū // ① to decorate ② to embellish ③ to repair ④ to build ⑤ to write ⑥ to cultivate ⑦ to study ⑧ to take (a class) // CC-CEDICT
脩 // 修 // xiū // ① dried meat ② private teacher's remuneration ③ withered ④ variant of 修[xiu1] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
於 // 于 // yú // ① dans ② à ③ de ④ par ⑤ que // Chinese-French
於 // 于 // yú // ① in ② at ③ to ④ from ⑤ by ⑥ than ⑦ out of // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // wū // ① en ② dans ③ pour ④ par // Chinese-French
於 // 於 // wū // ① (literary) Oh! ② Ah! // CC-CEDICT
於 // 於 // yū // ① surname Yu ② Taiwan pr. [Yu2] // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① être ② mais ③ cependant ④ alors ⑤ donc // Chinese-French
乃 // 乃 // nǎi // ① to be ② thus ③ so ④ therefore ⑤ then ⑥ only ⑦ thereupon // CC-CEDICT
廼 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
迺 // 乃 // nǎi // ① variant of 乃[nai3] // CC-CEDICT
普 // 普 // pǔ // ① universel ② général // Chinese-French
普 // 普 // pǔ // ① general ② popular ③ everywhere ④ universal // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guān // ① regarder avec attention, observer // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guān // ① to look at ② to watch ③ to observe ④ to behold ⑤ to advise ⑥ concept ⑦ point of view ⑧ outlook // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① temple taoïste // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① surname Guan // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① Taoist monastery ② palace gate watchtower ③ platform // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
家 // 家 // jiā // ① famille ② foyer ③ maison ④ domicile ⑤ expert ⑥ spécialiste ⑦ école // Chinese-French
家 // 家 // jiā // ① surname Jia // CC-CEDICT
家 // 家 // jiā // ① home ② family ③ (polite) my (sister, uncle etc) ④ classifier for families or businesses ⑤ refers to the philosophical schools of pre-Han China ⑥ noun suffix for a specialist in some activity, such as a musician or revolutionary, corresponding to English -ist, -er, -ary or -ian ⑦ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
傢 // 家 // jiā // ① see 傢伙|家伙[jia1 huo5] // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guān // ① regarder avec attention, observer // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guān // ① to look at ② to watch ③ to observe ④ to behold ⑤ to advise ⑥ concept ⑦ point of view ⑧ outlook // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① temple taoïste // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① surname Guan // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① Taoist monastery ② palace gate watchtower ③ platform // CC-CEDICT
家 // 家 // jiā // ① famille ② foyer ③ maison ④ domicile ⑤ expert ⑥ spécialiste ⑦ école // Chinese-French
家 // 家 // jiā // ① surname Jia // CC-CEDICT
家 // 家 // jiā // ① home ② family ③ (polite) my (sister, uncle etc) ④ classifier for families or businesses ⑤ refers to the philosophical schools of pre-Han China ⑥ noun suffix for a specialist in some activity, such as a musician or revolutionary, corresponding to English -ist, -er, -ary or -ian ⑦ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
傢 // 家 // jiā // ① see 傢伙|家伙[jia1 huo5] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
鄉 // 乡 // xiāng // ① village // Chinese-French
鄉 // 乡 // xiāng // ① country or countryside ② native place ③ home village or town ④ township (PRC administrative unit) // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guān // ① regarder avec attention, observer // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guān // ① to look at ② to watch ③ to observe ④ to behold ⑤ to advise ⑥ concept ⑦ point of view ⑧ outlook // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① temple taoïste // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① surname Guan // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① Taoist monastery ② palace gate watchtower ③ platform // CC-CEDICT
鄉 // 乡 // xiāng // ① village // Chinese-French
鄉 // 乡 // xiāng // ① country or countryside ② native place ③ home village or town ④ township (PRC administrative unit) // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guān // ① regarder avec attention, observer // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guān // ① to look at ② to watch ③ to observe ④ to behold ⑤ to advise ⑥ concept ⑦ point of view ⑧ outlook // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① temple taoïste // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① surname Guan // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① Taoist monastery ② palace gate watchtower ③ platform // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guān // ① regarder avec attention, observer // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guān // ① to look at ② to watch ③ to observe ④ to behold ⑤ to advise ⑥ concept ⑦ point of view ⑧ outlook // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① temple taoïste // Chinese-French
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① surname Guan // CC-CEDICT
觀 // 观 // guàn // ① Taoist monastery ② palace gate watchtower ③ platform // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
何以 // 何以 // hé yǐ // ① comment ② pourquoi ③ pour quelle raison // Chinese-French
何以 // 何以 // hé yǐ // ① whence // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
然 // 然 // rán // ① mais ② cependant ③ juste ④ correct // Chinese-French
然 // 然 // rán // ① correct ② right ③ so ④ thus ⑤ like this ⑥ -ly // CC-CEDICT
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (particule exclamative ou interrogative) // Chinese-French
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (exclamatory or interrogative particle) // CC-CEDICT
以此 // 以此 // yǐ cǐ // ① avec cela ② de ce fait ③ ainsi ④ à cause de cela // Chinese-French
以此 // 以此 // yǐ cǐ // ① with this ② thereby ③ thus ④ because of this // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

A well-founded establishment cannot be uprooted,
And a well-preserved tradition can not be dissolved:
Each will go on generation after generation.
One has true being when one keeps the Way body and soul,
Effective being when one extends the Way over the family,
Long being when one extends the Way over the community,
Rich being when one extends the Way over a nation,
Universal being when one extends the Way over the world.
Therefore, one knows others by looking at one's self,
Other communities by looking at one's own community,
Other states through the comparison with one's own state
And other worlds by inferring from one's own world.
That's how I come to know the world.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The well-founded will not be pulled up.
The well-embraced will not get dropped.
Such a one's descendants, accordingly, will never let sacrifices to him cease.
If you cultivate it within your own person, your virtue will be authentic.
If you cultivate it within your family, your virtue will exceed all need.
If you cultivate it within your village, your virtue will endure.
If you cultivate it within your state, your virtue will be abundant.
If you cultivate it among all under Heaven, your virtue will reach everywhere.
Look at the person from the point of view of the person.
Look at the family from the point of view of the family.
Look at the village from the point of view of the village.
Look at the state from the point of view of the state.
Look at all under Heaven from the point of view of all under Heaven.
How do I know that all under Heaven is so?
It is by this.
(Ⅷ)


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