Chapter 59 How to guard Tao.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


59. 1  
When governing the people,

This means that the prince wants to govern the people,

when making use of heaven,

事 = 用 to make use of. One must make use of the ways of heaven and comply with the four seasons,

there is nothing like coveting.

嗇 = 贪 to covet. Who governs with love, must love the wealth of the people. He must not be prodigal. Who practises asceticism, must love semen and breath. He must not let them escape.

Now to covet means to acquire in time.

早 = 先 in time. 服 = 得 to acquire. When the riches of the people are sparingly used, then men are peaceful. When semen and breath are sparingly used, then the Tao of heaven may be acquired in time.

To acquire in time, this means to make amassed Te heavy.

To acquire the Tao of heaven in time means to put stress on Te amassed within the self.

When one makes amassed Te heavy, then nothing is invincible.

剋 = 勝 to vanquish. When stress is put on Te amassed in the self, then everything may be vanquished.

When nothing is invincible, then nobody knows his limits.

When nothing is invincible, then nobody knows that the limits of his own Te might be restricted.

When nobody knows his limits, he may thereby own the country.

When nobody knows his own Te to have limits, he thereby may own a country and make the people happy.

When one owns the mother of the country, he may thereby last long.

The country is identical with the body. The mother is Tao. When a man is able to protect Tao within the body, he thereby causes his breath not to become heavy and the five spirits [of the viscera] not to become troubled. Then he is able to last long.

This is called the deep-going root and the firm trunk.

Man may regard the breath as the root and the semen as the trunk. When the roots of a tree do not reach deeply down, it will be disrooted. When the trunk is not firm, it will fall. This means: Hide your breath deeply, keep your semen firmly, and do not let them leak out.

This is the way to long life and to the permanent view.

Deep-going root and firm trunk are thus the way to long life and to the permanent view.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 治人事天莫若嗇。夫唯嗇,是謂早服;早服謂之重積德;重積德則無不克;無不克則莫知其極;莫知其極,可以有國;有國之母,可以長久;是謂深根固柢,長生久視之道。

《老子河上公章句·守道》: 治人,事天,莫若嗇。夫為嗇,是謂早服。早服謂之重積德。重積德則無不剋,無不剋則莫知其極,莫知其極可以有國。有國之母,可以長久。是謂深根固蒂,長生久視之道。

《郭店·老子乙》: 治人事天,莫若嗇。夫唯嗇,是以早;早服,是謂□□□□□□□□□□□不克則莫知其極。莫知其極,可以有國。有國之母,可以長□□□□□□□長生久視之道也。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□可以有國;有國之母,可以長久;是胃深槿固氏,長□□□□道也。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 治人事天莫若嗇。夫唯嗇,是以蚤服;蚤服是胃重積。重□□□□□□□□□□莫知其□;莫知其□□□有國;有國之母,可□□久;是胃□根固氏,長生久視之道也。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

治人,謂人君治理人民。事天,事,用也。當用天道,順四時。莫若嗇。嗇,愛惜也。 治國者當愛民財,不為奢泰。 治身者當愛精氣,不為放逸。夫為嗇,是謂早服。早,先也。服,得也。 夫獨愛民財,愛精氣,則能先得天道也。早服謂之重積德。先得天道,是謂重積得於己也。重積德則無不剋,剋,勝也。重積德於己,則無不勝。無不剋則莫知其極,無不剋勝,則莫知有知己德之窮極也。莫知其極可以有國。莫知己德者有極,則可以有社稷,為民致福。有國之母,可以長久。國身同也。母,道也。 人能保身中之道,使精氣不勞,五神不苦,則可以長久。是謂深根固蒂,人能以氣為根,以精為蒂,如樹根不深則拔,蒂不堅則落。 言當深藏其氣,固守其精,使無漏泄。長生久視之道。深根固蒂者,乃長生久視之道。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

To rule people and to serve Heaven there is nothing better than to be frugal.
Only by being frugal can one recover quickly. To recover quickly means to accumulate virtue heavily. By the heavy accumulation of virtue one can overcome everything. If one can overcome everything, then he will acquire a capacity the limit of which is beyond anyone's knowledge. When his capacity is beyond anyone's knowledge, he is fit to rule a state.
He who possesses the Mother (Tao) of the state will last long.
This means that the roots are deep and the stalks are firm, which is the way of long life and everlasting vision.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

In governing people and serving heaven,
Nothing is better than being sparing (se).
Being sparing,
Is called early adherence [to Tao].
Adhering early,
Is called being heavy with accumulated te (chung chi te).
To be heavy with accumulated te,
Then [such a person is] all overcoming.
Being all overcoming,
Then there is no knowing the limit (chi).
Not knowing the limit,
One may rule a state.
Having the mother of a state,
It may last long.
This is called being deeply rooted and firmly founded,
The way to long life and enduring vision (chiu shih).
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

In ruling men and in serving heaven, the Sage uses only moderation.
By moderation alone he is able to have conformed early (to Tao).
This early conformity is called intensive accumulation of virtue.
With this intensive accumulation of virtue, there is nothing that he cannot overcome.
Because there is nothing that he cannot overcome, no one will be able to know his supremacy.
Because no one knows his supremacy he can take possession of a country.
Because what he does is identified with the Mother in taking possession of a country, he can long endure.
This means that he is deep rooted and firmly based, and knows the way of longevity and immortality.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
治 // 治 // zhì // ① gouverner ② administrer ③ guérir ④ soigner ⑤ aménager ⑥ paix // Chinese-French
治 // 治 // zhì // ① to rule ② to govern ③ to manage ④ to control ⑤ to harness (a river) ⑥ to treat (a disease) ⑦ to wipe out (a pest) ⑧ to punish ⑨ to research // CC-CEDICT
人事 // 人事 // rén shì // ① ressources humaines // Chinese-French
人事 // 人事 // rén shì // ① personnel ② human resources ③ human affairs ④ ways of the world ⑤ (euphemism) sexuality ⑥ the facts of life // CC-CEDICT
天 // 天 // tiān // ① ciel ② jour ③ journée ④ temps ⑤ saison ⑥ nature ⑦ univers // Chinese-French
天 // 天 // tiān // ① day ② sky ③ heaven // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① ne...pas ② sans // Chinese-French
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① surname Mo // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① do not ② there is none who // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
嗇 // 啬 // sè // ① avare // Chinese-French
嗇 // 啬 // sè // ① stingy // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
嗇 // 啬 // sè // ① avare // Chinese-French
嗇 // 啬 // sè // ① stingy // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
早 // 早 // zǎo // ① matin ② matinée ③ tôt ④ depuis longtemps // Chinese-French
早 // 早 // zǎo // ① early ② morning ③ Good morning! ④ long ago ⑤ prematurely // CC-CEDICT
服 // 服 // fú // ① servir ② habits ③ vêtement ④ deuil ⑤ obéir // Chinese-French
服 // 服 // fú // ① clothes ② dress ③ garment ④ to serve (in the military, a prison sentence etc) ⑤ to obey ⑥ to convince ⑦ to admire ⑧ to acclimatize ⑨ to take (medicine) ⑩ mourning clothes ⑪ to wear mourning clothes // CC-CEDICT
服 // 服 // fù // ① dose (médecine) // Chinese-French
服 // 服 // fù // ① dose (measure word for medicine) ② Taiwan pr. [fu2] // CC-CEDICT
早 // 早 // zǎo // ① matin ② matinée ③ tôt ④ depuis longtemps // Chinese-French
早 // 早 // zǎo // ① early ② morning ③ Good morning! ④ long ago ⑤ prematurely // CC-CEDICT
服 // 服 // fú // ① servir ② habits ③ vêtement ④ deuil ⑤ obéir // Chinese-French
服 // 服 // fú // ① clothes ② dress ③ garment ④ to serve (in the military, a prison sentence etc) ⑤ to obey ⑥ to convince ⑦ to admire ⑧ to acclimatize ⑨ to take (medicine) ⑩ mourning clothes ⑪ to wear mourning clothes // CC-CEDICT
服 // 服 // fù // ① dose (médecine) // Chinese-French
服 // 服 // fù // ① dose (measure word for medicine) ② Taiwan pr. [fu2] // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① poids ② lourd ③ important ④ grave // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① heavy ② serious ③ to attach importance to // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // chóng // ① répéter ② à nouveau // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // chóng // ① to repeat ② repetition ③ again ④ re- ⑤ classifier: layer // CC-CEDICT
積德 // 积德 // jī dé // ① accomplir une bonne oeuvre // Chinese-French
積德 // 积德 // jī dé // ① to accumulate merit ② to do good ③ to give to charity ④ virtuous actions // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① poids ② lourd ③ important ④ grave // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① heavy ② serious ③ to attach importance to // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // chóng // ① répéter ② à nouveau // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // chóng // ① to repeat ② repetition ③ again ④ re- ⑤ classifier: layer // CC-CEDICT
積德 // 积德 // jī dé // ① accomplir une bonne oeuvre // Chinese-French
積德 // 积德 // jī dé // ① to accumulate merit ② to do good ③ to give to charity ④ virtuous actions // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
無不 // 无不 // wú bù // ① none lacking ② none missing ③ everything is there ④ everyone without exception // CC-CEDICT
克 // 克 // kè // ① to be able to ② to subdue ③ to restrain ④ to overcome ⑤ gram ⑥ Tibetan unit of land area, about 6 ares // CC-CEDICT
剋 // 克 // kè // ① capable ② soumettre ③ gramme // Chinese-French
剋 // 克 // kè // ① Ke (c. 2000 BC), seventh of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
剋 // 克 // kè // ① variant of 克[ke4] ② to subdue ③ to overthrow ④ to restrain // CC-CEDICT
尅 // 克 // kè // ① variant of 剋|克[ke4] // CC-CEDICT
剋 // 克 // kēi // ① to scold ② to beat // CC-CEDICT
無不 // 无不 // wú bù // ① none lacking ② none missing ③ everything is there ④ everyone without exception // CC-CEDICT
克 // 克 // kè // ① to be able to ② to subdue ③ to restrain ④ to overcome ⑤ gram ⑥ Tibetan unit of land area, about 6 ares // CC-CEDICT
剋 // 克 // kè // ① capable ② soumettre ③ gramme // Chinese-French
剋 // 克 // kè // ① Ke (c. 2000 BC), seventh of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
剋 // 克 // kè // ① variant of 克[ke4] ② to subdue ③ to overthrow ④ to restrain // CC-CEDICT
尅 // 克 // kè // ① variant of 剋|克[ke4] // CC-CEDICT
剋 // 克 // kēi // ① to scold ② to beat // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① ne...pas ② sans // Chinese-French
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① surname Mo // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① do not ② there is none who // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
極 // 极 // jí // ① sommet ② extrémité ③ pôle ④ extrêmement // Chinese-French
極 // 极 // jí // ① extremely ② pole (geography, physics) ③ utmost ④ top // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① ne...pas ② sans // Chinese-French
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① surname Mo // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① do not ② there is none who // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
極 // 极 // jí // ① sommet ② extrémité ③ pôle ④ extrêmement // Chinese-French
極 // 极 // jí // ① extremely ② pole (geography, physics) ③ utmost ④ top // CC-CEDICT
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① pouvoir ② passable ③ assez bien // Chinese-French
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① can ② may ③ possible ④ able to ⑤ not bad ⑥ pretty good // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
母 // 母 // mǔ // ① mère ② femelle // Chinese-French
母 // 母 // mǔ // ① mother ② elderly female relative ③ origin ④ source ⑤ (of animals) female // CC-CEDICT
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① pouvoir ② passable ③ assez bien // Chinese-French
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① can ② may ③ possible ④ able to ⑤ not bad ⑥ pretty good // CC-CEDICT
長久 // 长久 // cháng jiǔ // ① durable ② permanent ③ longtemps ④ de longue durée // Chinese-French
長久 // 长久 // cháng jiǔ // ① (for a) long time // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
深 // 深 // shēn // ① profond ② difficile ③ intime ④ étroit ⑤ foncé ⑥ très ⑦ profondément ⑧ tard // Chinese-French
深 // 深 // shēn // ① deep ② depth ③ deeply ④ (of a color) dark ⑤ deep ⑥ rich // CC-CEDICT
㴱 // 深 // shēn // ① old variant of 深[shen1] // CC-CEDICT
根 // 根 // gēn // ① racine (botanique) ② racine (mathématiques) ③ radical chimique ④ base ⑤ fondement ⑥ pied (d'une montagne) ⑦ origine des choses ⑧ spécificatif des objets longs et minces (cigarettes, troncs d'arbre, cordes, etc.) // Chinese-French
根 // 根 // gēn // ① root ② basis ③ classifier for long slender objects, e.g. cigarettes, guitar strings ④ CL:條|条[tiao2] ⑤ radical (chemistry) // CC-CEDICT
固 // 固 // gù // ① solide ② ferme ③ fermement ④ résolument // Chinese-French
固 // 固 // gù // ① hard ② strong ③ solid ④ sure ⑤ assuredly ⑥ undoubtedly ⑦ of course ⑧ indeed ⑨ admittedly // CC-CEDICT
柢 // 柢 // dǐ // ① racine // Chinese-French
柢 // 柢 // dǐ // ① foundation ② root // CC-CEDICT
長生久視 // 长生久视 // cháng shēng jiǔ shì // ① to grow old with unfailing eyes and ears (idiom) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

To govern the world to cultivate one's nature,
One should stick to frugality.
For being frugal,
One will not stray from the Way as others do.
Staying with the Way, one can accumulate earlier.
Since one has stayed and accumulated longer in the Way,
One can overcome more wanton desires.
When one has overcome all desires,
Others would by no means be able to know
The limits of one's abilities.
One can then be qualified to lead a nation.
With a qualified leader, a nation can be long.
The Way is therefore the longest-rooted system
That supports the longest life span.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

For ordering the people and serving Heaven, nothing is better than husbandry.
Only husbandry can be called the quick way to submission.
By "quick way to submission" we mean the repetitive accumulation of virtue.
If one repetitively accumulates virtue, there is nothing that he cannot conquer.
As there is nothing that he cannot conquer, no one knows the limits he can reach.
As no one knows his limits, he can, accordingly, keep his state.
If one maintains the mother of the state, he can, accordingly, long endure.
This we refer to as having deep roots firmly established, for it is the Dao of long life and enduring oversight.
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

59 







Home