Chapter 62 How to exert Tao.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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62. 1  
Tao is the hiding-place of all beings.

ngao 奧 is a hiding-place 藏 . Tao is the hiding-place of all beings. There is nothing which it did not contain.

The treasure of the good man.

The good man makes Tao the treasure of his person. He does not dare to depart from it.

That which the bad man guards.

Tao is what the bad man guards. If he meets with sorrow, if he is pressed by hurry, he seems to know repentance for his vileness.

In fine words one may trade.

In fine words one is only able to trade. For bartering is easy and retraction incongruous. As to fine and insinuating words, the buyer wants to acquire them quickly, and the seller wants to get quickly rid of them.

By dignified behaviour one is able to differ from others.

加 = 別 to differ. If a man knows how to behave in exalted and low conditions, he will be able to be different from all other men but not yet sufficient to venerate Tao.

Though a man be bad, how could he be rejected ?

Though a man be bad, he must be improved by Tao. Surely in the times of the three Exalted Ones there was no rejection of the people. Te vastly improved them.

Therefore they installed the son of heaven and appointed the three dukes.

One wanted to improve the bad men. Though one has a jade-sceptre and takes precedence in a quadriga, this is not equal to sitting there and approaching Tao.

Though one may have a beautiful sceptre of jade and take precedence in a quadriga, it is better to sit still and to approach Tao.

Why the ancients esteemed this Tao, why was this the case? Not because they daily strove to acquire it?

That by which the ancients esteemed this Tao was not daily roaming far in order to look for it. They found it near themselves in their persons.

By having sin one avoids evil.

To have sin means to find the world in confusion. A benighted prince falsifies the course by indulging in punishments. By cultivating Tao one may avoid all evil.

Therefore one is honoured within the empire.

If Tao and Te penetrate thoroughly, everything is embraced and redeemed. When completing the personality, when governing the country, one ought to be quiet and without action. Then one may be honoured within the empire.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 道者萬物之奧。善人之寶,不善人之所保。美言可以市,尊行可以加人。人之不善,何棄之有?故立天子,置三公,雖有拱璧以先駟馬,不如坐進此道。古之所以貴此道者何?不曰:以求得,有罪以免耶?故為天下貴。

《老子河上公章句·為道》: 道者萬物之奧,善人之寶,不善人之所保。美言可以市,尊行可以加入。人之不善,何棄之有。故立天子,置三公,雖有拱璧以先駟馬,不如坐進此道。古之所以貴此道者,何不日以求得?有罪以免耶,故為天下貴。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □者萬物之注也,善人之保也,不善人之所保也。美言可以市,尊行可以加人。人之不善也,何棄□有?故立天子,置三卿,雖有共之璧以先四馬,不善坐而進此。古之所以貴此者何也?不胃:□□得,有罪以免輿?故為天下貴。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 道者萬物之注也,善人之保也,不善人之所葆也。美言可以市,尊行可以賀人。人之不善,何□□□□立天子,置三鄉,雖有□□璧以先四馬,不若坐而進此。古□□□□□□□□□。不胃求以得,有罪以免與?故為天下貴。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

道者萬物之奧,奧,藏也。道為萬物之藏,無所不容也。善人之寶,善人以道為身寶,不敢違也。不善人之所保。道者,不善人之保倚也。遭患逢急,猶知自悔卑下。美言可以市,美言者獨可於市耳。 夫市交易而退,不相宜善言美語,求者欲疾得,賣者欲疾售也。尊行可以加入。加,別也。人有尊貴之行,可以別異於凡人,未足以尊道。人之不善,何棄之有。人雖不善,當以道化之。蓋三皇之前,無有棄民,德化淳也。故立天子,置三公,欲使教化不善之人。雖有拱璧以先駟馬,不如坐進此道。雖有美璧先駟馬而至,故不如坐進此道。古之所以貴此道者,何不日以求得?古之所以貴此道者,不日日遠行求索,近得之於身。有罪以免耶,有罪謂遭亂世,闇君妄行形誅,修道則可以解死,免於眾也。故為天下貴。道德洞遠,無不覆濟,全身治國,恬然無為,故可為天下貴也。
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- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Tao is the storehouse of all things. It is the good man's treasure and the bad man's refuge.
Fine words can buy honour, And fine deeds can gain respect from others. Even if a man is bad, when has (Tao) rejected him?
Therefore on the occasion of crowning an emperor or installing the three ministers, Rather than present four large pieces of jade preceded by teams of four horses, It is better to kneel and offer this Tao.
Why did the ancients highly value this Tao? Did they not say, "Those who seek shall have it and those who sin shall be freed"? For this reason it is valued by the world.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

To all beings Tao is the hidden secret (ao):
To the good persons it is their treasure (pao),
To the not good it is that by which they are preserved (pao).
Beautiful speech can go to the market.
Respectable conduct can be bestowed on others.
Those who are not good,
Why discard them?
Therefore on crowning the Son of Heaven,
On appointing the Three Ducal Ministers (kung),
Although there are tributes of jade,
Preceding teams of four horses,
It is better to kneel (tso) and present this Tao.
Why did the ancients honor this Tao?
One does not say that they did it for the purpose of gain,
Rather they wish to be free from offenses (tsui).
Therefore they were the honored under heaven.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Tao is the source of all things, the treasure of good men, and the sustainer of bad men.
Therefore at the enthronement of an emperor and the appointment of the three ministers, better still than those who present jewels followed by horses, is the one who sitting presents (propounds) this Tao. Why did the ancients prize this Tao? Was it not because it could be attained by seeking and thus the sinners could be freed? For this reason, it has become the most valuable thing in the world.
Good words will procure one honour; good deeds will get one credit.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① tous les êtres vivants // Chinese-French
萬物 // 万物 // wàn wù // ① all living things // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
奧 // 奥 // ào // ① mystérieux ② caché ③ obscur ④ (abréviation pour olympique ou Autriche) // Chinese-French
奧 // 奥 // ào // ① Austria ② Austrian ③ abbr. for 奧地利|奥地利[Ao4 di4 li4] ④ Olympic ⑤ Olympics ⑥ abbr. for 奧林匹克|奥林匹克[Ao4 lin2 pi3 ke4] // CC-CEDICT
奧 // 奥 // ào // ① obscure ② mysterious // CC-CEDICT
善人 // 善人 // shàn rén // ① philanthrope ② personne charitable ③ bienfaiteur // Chinese-French
善人 // 善人 // shàn rén // ① philanthropist ② charitable person ③ well-doer // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
寶 // 宝 // bǎo // ① bijou ② trésor ③ précieux // Chinese-French
寶 // 宝 // bǎo // ① jewel ② gem ③ treasure ④ precious // CC-CEDICT
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① mauvais ② méchant // Chinese-French
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① bad ② ill ③ not good at ④ not to be pooh-poohed ⑤ quite impressive // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
保 // 保 // bǎo // ① défendre ② protéger ③ entretenir ④ conserver ⑤ garantir ⑥ maintenir ⑦ garder ⑧ assurer // Chinese-French
保 // 保 // bǎo // ① Bulgaria ② Bulgarian ③ abbr. for 保加利亞|保加利亚[Bao3 jia1 li4 ya4] // CC-CEDICT
保 // 保 // bǎo // ① to defend ② to protect ③ to keep ④ to guarantee ⑤ to ensure // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beau, élégant ② excellent ③ louer ④ abréviation d'Amérique // Chinese-French
美 // 美 // měi // ① the Americas ② abbr. for 美洲[Mei3 zhou1] ③ USA ④ abbr. for 美國|美国[Mei3 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beautiful ② very satisfactory ③ good ④ to beautify ⑤ to be pleased with oneself // CC-CEDICT
言 // 言 // yán // ① dire ② mot ③ parole ④ opinion ⑤ propos // Chinese-French
言 // 言 // yán // ① words ② speech ③ to say ④ to talk // CC-CEDICT
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① pouvoir ② passable ③ assez bien // Chinese-French
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① can ② may ③ possible ④ able to ⑤ not bad ⑥ pretty good // CC-CEDICT
市 // 市 // shì // ① marché ② ville // Chinese-French
市 // 市 // shì // ① market ② city ③ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
尊 // 尊 // zūn // ① honorable ② honorer ③ vénérer ④ vase ⑤ (classificateur des canons, idoles, images...) // Chinese-French
尊 // 尊 // zūn // ① senior ② of a senior generation ③ to honor ④ to respect ⑤ honorific ⑥ classifier for cannons and statues ⑦ ancient wine vessel // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xíng // ① marcher ② agir ③ faire ④ pratiquer ⑤ appliquer ⑥ d'accord ⑦ c'est bon ! ⑧ chacun des éléments : l’eau, le feu, le bois, le métal, la terre ⑨ bagages ⑩ quitter la maison ⑪ se marier (pour une fille) ⑫ ballade // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // xíng // ① to walk ② to go ③ to travel ④ a visit ⑤ temporary ⑥ makeshift ⑦ current ⑧ in circulation ⑨ to do ⑩ to perform ⑪ capable ⑫ competent ⑬ effective ⑭ all right ⑮ OK! ⑯ will do ⑰ behavior ⑱ conduct ⑲ Taiwan pr. [xing4] for the behavior-conduct sense // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // háng // ① classe ② sorte ③ rang ④ maison de commerce // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // háng // ① a row ② series ③ age order (of brothers) ④ profession ⑤ professional ⑥ relating to company // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xìng // ① action // Chinese-French
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① pouvoir ② passable ③ assez bien // Chinese-French
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① can ② may ③ possible ④ able to ⑤ not bad ⑥ pretty good // CC-CEDICT
加 // 加 // jiā // ① additionner ② augmenter ③ ajouter ④ insérer ⑤ plus // Chinese-French
加 // 加 // jiā // ① abbr. for Canada 加拿大[Jia1 na2 da4] ② surname Jia // CC-CEDICT
加 // 加 // jiā // ① to add ② plus ③ (used after an adverb such as 不, 大, 稍 etc, and before a disyllabic verb, to indicate that the action of the verb is applied to sth or sb previously mentioned) ④ to apply (restrictions etc) to (sb) ⑤ to give (support, consideration etc) to (sth) // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① mauvais ② méchant // Chinese-French
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① bad ② ill ③ not good at ④ not to be pooh-poohed ⑤ quite impressive // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① quel ? ② quoi ? // Chinese-French
何 // 何 // hé // ① surname He // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① what ② how ③ why ④ which ⑤ carry // CC-CEDICT
棄 // 弃 // qì // ① abandonner ② rejeter // Chinese-French
棄 // 弃 // qì // ① to abandon ② to relinquish ③ to discard ④ to throw away // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
立 // 立 // lì // ① s'efforcer de ② se tenir debout ③ dresser ④ fonder ⑤ vertical ⑥ droit ⑦ tout de suite ⑧ immédiatement // Chinese-French
立 // 立 // lì // ① surname Li // CC-CEDICT
立 // 立 // lì // ① to stand ② to set up ③ to establish ④ to lay down ⑤ to draw up ⑥ at once ⑦ immediately // CC-CEDICT
天子 // 天子 // tiān zǐ // ① Fils du Ciel ② empereur // Chinese-French
天子 // 天子 // tiān zǐ // "① the (rightful) emperor ② ""Son of Heaven"" (traditional English translation)" // CC-CEDICT
置 // 置 // zhì // ① placer ② acheter ③ préparer // Chinese-French
置 // 置 // zhì // ① to install ② to place ③ to put ④ to buy // CC-CEDICT
三公 // 三公 // sān gōng // ① Trois Excellences // Chinese-French
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① bien que ② malgré que // Chinese-French
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① although ② even though // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
拱璧 // 拱璧 // gǒng bì // ① a flat round jade ornament with a hole at the center ② fig. a treasure // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
先 // 先 // xiān // ① premier ② d'abord ③ ancêtre ④ prédécesseur ⑤ défunt // Chinese-French
先 // 先 // xiān // ① early ② prior ③ former ④ in advance ⑤ first // CC-CEDICT
駟馬 // 驷马 // sì mǎ // ① un attelage à quatre chevaux // Chinese-French
不如 // 不如 // bù rú // ① ne pas égaler ② ne pas être aussi bon que ③ être inférieur à // Chinese-French
不如 // 不如 // bù rú // ① not equal to ② not as good as ③ inferior to ④ it would be better to // CC-CEDICT
坐 // 坐 // zuò // ① s'asseoir ② prendre (le bus, l'avion) ③ se situer ④ se trouver ⑤ siège ⑥ place assise // Chinese-French
坐 // 坐 // zuò // ① surname Zuo // CC-CEDICT
坐 // 坐 // zuò // ① to sit ② to take a seat ③ to take (a bus, airplane etc) ④ to bear fruit ⑤ variant of 座[zuo4] // CC-CEDICT
進 // 进 // jìn // ① entrer ② progresser ③ présenter ④ recommander // Chinese-French
進 // 进 // jìn // ① to go forward ② to advance ③ to go in ④ to enter ⑤ to put in ⑥ to submit ⑦ to take in ⑧ to admit ⑨ (math.) base of a number system ⑩ classifier for sections in a building or residential compound // CC-CEDICT
此道 // 此道 // cǐ dào // ① such matters ② things like this ③ this line of work ④ this pursuit ⑤ this hobby ⑥ this endeavor // CC-CEDICT
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancien ② antique // Chinese-French
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancient ② old ③ paleo- // CC-CEDICT
之所以 // 之所以 // zhī suǒ yǐ // ① la raison pour laquelle // Chinese-French
之所以 // 之所以 // zhī suǒ yǐ // ① the reason why // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
此道 // 此道 // cǐ dào // ① such matters ② things like this ③ this line of work ④ this pursuit ⑤ this hobby ⑥ this endeavor // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① quel ? ② quoi ? // Chinese-French
何 // 何 // hé // ① surname He // CC-CEDICT
何 // 何 // hé // ① what ② how ③ why ④ which ⑤ carry // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
曰 // 曰 // yuē // ① dire ② appeler // Chinese-French
曰 // 曰 // yuē // ① to speak ② to say // CC-CEDICT
以求 // 以求 // yǐ qiú // ① de sorte à ② afin de // Chinese-French
以求 // 以求 // yǐ qiú // ① in order to // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
有罪 // 有罪 // yǒu zuì // ① culpabilité ② culpabilité // Chinese-French
有罪 // 有罪 // yǒu zuì // ① guilty // CC-CEDICT
以免 // 以免 // yǐ miǎn // ① pour éviter // Chinese-French
以免 // 以免 // yǐ miǎn // ① in order to avoid ② so as not to // CC-CEDICT
耶 // 耶 // yē // ① (phonetic ye) // CC-CEDICT
耶 // 耶 // yé // ① interrogative particle (classical) // CC-CEDICT
耶 // 耶 // ye // ① final particle indicating enthusiasm etc // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① cher ② coûteux ③ précieux // Chinese-French
貴 // 贵 // guì // ① expensive ② noble ③ precious ④ (honorific) your // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The Way is the pacifier appreciated by all.
It is the treasure of the wise and the shelter for the unwise.
Eloquent words can win respect.
Kind deeds can win praises.
Since the unwise are not affected,
Why should they be given up as hopeless?
Therefore,
It is better to sit down and present the Way
Than to present a king and officials to the world
And to give them a precious jade
And a carriage and four horses at the ceremony.
Didn't the ancient wise ones rightly appreciate the Way
Because it can both satisfy our needs
And forgive us for our sins and folly?
That is why the Way is the most respected.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The Dao is the shelter of the myriad things.
It is the treasure of the good man
And the protector of the man who is not good.
Fine words can be used to market it, and noble behavior can be used to influence others by it.
As for men who are not good, how could they ever be discarded?
Thus the son of Heaven is established, and the three dukes are installed.
Although one could promote it by providing them with disks of jade to hold and teams of four horses to lead, this falls short of promoting this Dao by just letting them sit quietly.
How did the ancients show their esteem for the Dao?
Did they not say:
"When beseeching it, one obtains, and, when in violation of it, one is forgiven"?
Thus it was that it was esteemed by all under Heaven.
(Ⅷ)


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