Chapter 66 How to put the self behind.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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66. 1  
That the [Yang-tse-]chiang and the sea are able to be kings of the torrents is because of their well submitting to them.

Because the [Yang-tse-]chiang and the sea are lower, all the currents are drawn towards them, like the people turning to their king.

Therefore they are able to be kings of all the torrents.

As they are lower, they are able to become kings of all the torrents.

If therefore the saint wants to be above the people,

If he wants to have a position above the people,

he by his words submits to them.

He takes the [Yang-tse-]chiang and the sea for his models and remains in a modest position.

If he wants to precede the people,

If he wants to range before the people.

with his personality he puts himself behind them.

He allows others to precede and puts his self behind.

When therefore the saint dwells above, the people are not weighed down.

When a saint dwells above the people as their prince, he does not frighten his subjects by his dignity. Therefore the people bear him and look up to him. They do not feel him as a weight.

When he stands forth, the people are not hurt.

When preceding the people, the saint does not obscure the people behind him by his splendour. He loves the people as if he were their father and mother. He has no wish to hurt them.

Therefore the empire is glad to push him on and gets not tired of him.

It is the saint’s intention to love the people deep and strong like little children. Therefore the empire is glad and pushes him forward to make him a prince. It does not get tired of him.

Because he does not contend,

The empire gets not tired of the time of a sage. This is the case because the saint does not contend with the people who shall be first or last.

Therefore nobody in the empire is able to contend with him.

This means: All men contend about action. Nobody contends with me about non-action.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 江海所以能為百谷王者,以其善下之,故能為百谷王。是以聖人欲上民,必以言下之;欲先民,必以身後之。是以聖人處上而民不重,處前而民不害。是以天下樂推而不厭。以其不爭,故天下莫能與之爭。

《老子河上公章句·後己》: 江海所以能為百谷王者,以其善下之,故能為百谷王。是以欲上民,必以言下之;欲先民,必以身後之。是以聖人處上而民不重,處前而民不害。是以天下樂推而不厭。以其不爭,故天下莫能與之爭。

《郭店·老子甲》: 江海所以為百谷王,以其能為百谷下,是以能為百谷王。聖人之在民前也,以身後之;其在民上也,以言下之。其在民上也,民弗厚也;其在民前也,民弗害也。天下樂進而弗詀。以其不爭也,故天下莫能與之爭。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □海之所以能為百浴王者,以其善下之,是以能為百浴王。是以聖人之欲上民也,必以其言下之;其欲先□□必以其身後之。故居前而民弗害也,居上而民弗重也。天下樂隼而弗猒也,非以其無諍與?故□□□□□諍。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 江海所以能為百浴□□,□其□下之也,是以能為百浴王。是以聖人之欲上民也,必以其言下之;其欲先民也,必以其身後之。故居上而民弗重也,居前而民弗害。天下皆樂誰而弗猒也,不□其無爭與?故天下莫能與爭。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

江海所以能為百谷王者,以其善下之,故能為百谷王。江海以卑,故眾流歸之,若民歸就王。以卑下,故能為百谷王也。是以欲上民,欲在民之上也。必以言下之;法江海處謙虛。欲先民,欲在民之前也。必以身後之。先人而後己也。是以聖人處上而民不重,聖人在民上為主,不以尊貴虐下,故民戴而不為重。處前而民不害。聖人在民前,不以光明蔽後,民親之若父母,無有欲害之心也。是以天下樂推而不厭。聖人恩深愛厚,視民如赤子,故天下樂推進以為主,無有厭也。以其不爭,天下無厭聖人時,是由聖人不與人爭先後也。故天下莫能與之爭。言人皆有為,無有與吾爭無為。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

The great rivers and seas are kings of all mountains streams Because they skillfully stay below them. That is why they can be their kings.
Therefore, in order to be the superior of the people, One must, in the use of words, place himself below them. And in order to be ahead of the people, One must, in one's own person, follow them.
Therefore the sage rejoices in praising him without getting tired of it.
It is precisely because he does not compete that the world cannot compete with him.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Rivers and seas can be kings of the hundred valleys,
Because they are good at flowing downwards (hsia).
Therefore they can be kings of the hundred valleys.
Thus if you desire to be above the people,
Your words must reach down (hsia) to them.
If you desire to lead the people,
Your person (shen, body) must be behind them.
Thus the sage is above,
Yet the people do not feel his weight.
He stays in front,
Yet the people do not suffer any harm.
Thus all gladly praise him untiringly (pu yen).
Because he does not contend with any,
Therefore no one under heaven can contend with him.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

As Tao is to the world, so are streams and valleys to the rivers and seas.
Rivers and seas can be kings to all valleys because the former can well lower themselves to the latter.
Thus they become kings to all valleys.
Therefore the Sage, in order to be above the people, must in words keep below them;
In order to be ahead of the people, he must in person keep behind them.
Thus when he is above, the people do not feel his burden;
When he is ahead, the people do not feel his hinderance.
Therefore all the world is pleased to hold him in high esteem and never get tired of him.
Because he does not compete; therefore no one competes with him.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
江海 // 江海 // jiāng hǎi // ① Jianghai district of Jiangmen city 江門市|江门市, Guangdong // CC-CEDICT
所以 // 所以 // suǒ yǐ // ① par conséquent ② ainsi ③ (c'est) la raison pour laquelle // Chinese-French
所以 // 所以 // suǒ yǐ // ① therefore ② as a result ③ so ④ the reason why // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
百穀 // 百谷 // bǎi gǔ // ① tous les grains ② tous les types de cultures céréalières // Chinese-French
百穀 // 百谷 // bǎi gǔ // ① all the grains ② every kind of cereal crop // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① roi ② prince ③ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wáng // ① surname Wang // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① king or monarch ② best or strongest of its type ③ grand ④ great // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wàng // ① régner sur // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wàng // ① to rule ② to reign over // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
百穀 // 百谷 // bǎi gǔ // ① tous les grains ② tous les types de cultures céréalières // Chinese-French
百穀 // 百谷 // bǎi gǔ // ① all the grains ② every kind of cereal crop // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① roi ② prince ③ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wáng // ① surname Wang // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wáng // ① king or monarch ② best or strongest of its type ③ grand ④ great // CC-CEDICT
王 // 王 // wàng // ① régner sur // Chinese-French
王 // 王 // wàng // ① to rule ② to reign over // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
必 // 必 // bì // ① nécessairement ② certainement ③ falloir ④ devoir // Chinese-French
必 // 必 // bì // ① certainly ② must ③ will ④ necessarily // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
言 // 言 // yán // ① dire ② mot ③ parole ④ opinion ⑤ propos // Chinese-French
言 // 言 // yán // ① words ② speech ③ to say ④ to talk // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
先 // 先 // xiān // ① premier ② d'abord ③ ancêtre ④ prédécesseur ⑤ défunt // Chinese-French
先 // 先 // xiān // ① early ② prior ③ former ④ in advance ⑤ first // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
必 // 必 // bì // ① nécessairement ② certainement ③ falloir ④ devoir // Chinese-French
必 // 必 // bì // ① certainly ② must ③ will ④ necessarily // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
身後 // 身后 // shēn hòu // ① à titre posthume ② son origine sociale ③ derrière // Chinese-French
身後 // 身后 // shēn hòu // ① posthumous ② one's social background ③ behind the body // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① poids ② lourd ③ important ④ grave // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① heavy ② serious ③ to attach importance to // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // chóng // ① répéter ② à nouveau // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // chóng // ① to repeat ② repetition ③ again ④ re- ⑤ classifier: layer // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
前 // 前 // qián // ① avant ② devant ③ précédent ④ ancien ⑤ pré- // Chinese-French
前 // 前 // qián // ① front ② forward ③ ahead ④ first ⑤ top (followed by a number) ⑥ future ⑦ ago ⑧ before ⑨ BC (e.g. 前293年) ⑩ former ⑪ formerly // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
不害 // 不害 // bù hài // ① Ahimsa // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① joyeux ② gai // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① surname Le // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① happy ② cheerful ③ to laugh // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① musique // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① surname Yue // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① music // CC-CEDICT
推 // 推 // tuī // ① pousser ② retarder ③ ajourner ④ élire // Chinese-French
推 // 推 // tuī // ① to push ② to cut ③ to refuse ④ to reject ⑤ to decline ⑥ to shirk (responsibility) ⑦ to put off ⑧ to delay ⑨ to push forward ⑩ to nominate ⑪ to elect ⑫ massage // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不厭 // 不厌 // bù yàn // ① not to tire of ② not to object to // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
不爭 // 不争 // bù zhēng // ① widely known ② incontestable ③ undeniable ④ to not strive for ⑤ to not contend for // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① ne...pas ② sans // Chinese-French
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① surname Mo // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① do not ② there is none who // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
爭 // 争 // zhēng // ① lutter ② disputer ③ discuter // Chinese-French
爭 // 争 // zhēng // ① to strive for ② to vie for ③ to argue or debate ④ deficient or lacking (dialect) ⑤ how or what (literary) // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The ocean can be the king of all deep places
Because it positions itself lowest in the world.
Similarly, the one who wants to be influential
Must first be humble in his speech and actions.
The one who wants to be the leader
Must first go back behind all others.
When such a leader is above, people will feel no weight.
When such a leader is in front, people will feel no hindrance.
He/She is therefore recommended without reservation,
For one who fights for nothing advances best.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The reason the river and the sea are able to be kings of all the river valleys is that they are good at keeping below them.
Thus they are able to be kings of all the river valleys.
This is why, if one wishes to be above the common folk, he must use his words to place himself below them.
If one wishes to be at the front of the common folk, he must use his person in such a way that they think of him as behind them.
Therefore the sage positions himself above, yet the common folk do not regard him as heavy;
he positions himself in front, yet the common folk do not regard him as an obstacle.
Therefore all under Heaven happily promote him without ever tiring of it.
It is because he does not contend that none among all under Heaven can contend with him.
(Ⅷ)


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