Chapter 68 How to associate with heaven.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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(⁎)
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(Ⅳ)
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(Ⅷ)


68. 1  
Those of old who were good warriors were not warlike.

This means: Esteem Tao and Te and do not prefer martial strength.

A good fighter does not become angry.

Who fights well with Tao, suppresses the evil within his bosom. He smothers misfortune before it sprouts. He is angry about nothing.

Who well vanquishes the foe does not contend.

Who with Tao well vanquishes the foe, subjects the near ones by humanity and causes the far away ones by Te to draw near. He does not fight the enemy, but the enemy submits of himself.

Who well uses others renders himself lowly,

Who uses others well helps himself. Always he induces men to strive for humility.

This is called the Te of non-contending.

This means: What is said above causes that which follows. These are Tao and Te, as they do not contend with man.

This is called using the strength of man.

If one is able to follow this, Tao becomes associated with heaven.

The highest goal of antiquity.

This was the highest and most important principle of antiquity.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 善為士者,不武;善戰者,不怒;善勝敵者,不與;善用人者,為之下。是謂不爭之德,是謂用人之力,是謂配天古之極

《老子河上公章句·配天》: 善為士者不武,善戰者不怒,善勝敵者不與,善用人者為之下。是謂不爭之德,是謂用人之力,是謂配天古之極。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 善為士者,不武;善戰者,不怒;善勝敵者,弗□;善用人者,為之下。□胃不諍之德,是胃用人,是胃天,古之極也。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 故善為士者,不武;善單者,不怒;善朕敵者,弗與;善用人者,為之下。是胃不爭□德,是胃用人,是胃肥天古之極也。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

善為士者不武,言貴道德,不好武力也。善戰者不怒,善以道戰者,禁邪於胸心,絕禍於未萌,無所誅怒也。善勝敵者不與,善以道勝敵者,附近以仁,來遠以德,不與敵爭,而敵自服也。善用人者為之下。善用人自輔佐者,常為人執謙下也。是謂不爭之德,謂上為之下也。是乃不與人爭之道德也。是謂用人之力,能身為人下,是謂用人臣之力也。是謂配天古之極。能行此者,德配天也。是乃古之極要道也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

A skillful leader of troops is not oppressive with his military strength. A skilful fighter does not become angry.
A skilful conqueror does not compete with people. One who is skilful in using men puts himself below them.
This is called the virtue of non-competing. This is called the strength to use men. This is called matching Heaven, the highest principle of old.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

A good captain does not exhibit his martial prowess.
A good warrior does not get himself angry.
A good conqueror of enemies does not instigate a combat.
A good employer of people puts himself below them.
This is called the power (te) of non-contention.
This is called using the strength of others.
This is called perfection (chi) in matching the heaven of old.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

The best soldier is not soldierly;
The best fighter is not ferocious;
The best conqueror does not take part in war;
The best employer of men keeps himself below them.
This is called the virtue of not contending;
This is the ability of using men;
This is called the supremacy of consorting with heaven.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
士 // 士 // shì // ① lettré ② soldat // Chinese-French
士 // 士 // shì // ① surname Shi // CC-CEDICT
士 // 士 // shì // ① member of the senior ministerial class (old) ② scholar (old) ③ bachelor ④ honorific ⑤ soldier ⑥ noncommissioned officer ⑦ specialist worker // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
武 // 武 // wǔ // ① militaire ② martial // Chinese-French
武 // 武 // wǔ // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
武 // 武 // wǔ // ① martial ② military // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
戰 // 战 // zhàn // ① combattre ② se battre ③ combat ④ guerre // Chinese-French
戰 // 战 // zhàn // ① to fight ② fight ③ war ④ battle // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
怒 // 怒 // nù // ① colère // Chinese-French
怒 // 怒 // nù // ① anger ② fury ③ flourishing ④ vigorous // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
敵 // 敌 // dí // ① ennemi ② adversaire ③ s'opposer à ④ résister à // Chinese-French
敵 // 敌 // dí // ① enemy ② to be a match for ③ to rival ④ to resist ⑤ to withstand // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
善用 // 善用 // shàn yòng // ① être bon à l'utilisation de qch // Chinese-French
善用 // 善用 // shàn yòng // ① to be good at using (sth) ② to put (sth) to good use // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
之下 // 之下 // zhī xià // ① après // Chinese-French
之下 // 之下 // zhī xià // ① under ② beneath ③ less than // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
不爭 // 不争 // bù zhēng // ① widely known ② incontestable ③ undeniable ④ to not strive for ⑤ to not contend for // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
用人 // 用人 // yòng rén // ① sélection professionnelle ② choisir qqn pour lui confier un travail ③ utiliser les capacités des gens // Chinese-French
用人 // 用人 // yòng rén // ① servant ② to employ sb for a job ③ to manage people ④ to be in need of staff // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
力 // 力 // lì // ① force ② vigueur ③ 19e radical // Chinese-French
力 // 力 // lì // ① surname Li // CC-CEDICT
力 // 力 // lì // ① power ② force ③ strength ④ ability ⑤ strenuously // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
配 // 配 // pèi // ① s'unir ② accoupler ③ remplacer ④ être digne de // Chinese-French
配 // 配 // pèi // ① to join ② to fit ③ to mate ④ to mix ⑤ to match ⑥ to deserve ⑦ to make up (a prescription) ⑧ to allocate // CC-CEDICT
天 // 天 // tiān // ① ciel ② jour ③ journée ④ temps ⑤ saison ⑥ nature ⑦ univers // Chinese-French
天 // 天 // tiān // ① day ② sky ③ heaven // CC-CEDICT
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancien ② antique // Chinese-French
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancient ② old ③ paleo- // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
極 // 极 // jí // ① sommet ② extrémité ③ pôle ④ extrêmement // Chinese-French
極 // 极 // jí // ① extremely ② pole (geography, physics) ③ utmost ④ top // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

A true gentleman admires no martial arts.
An invincible warrior never resorts to anger.
A true winner never appears in any encounter.
A wise employer never looks superior.
Holders of the true Way struggle for nothing of their own,
And depend on resources of strength other than their own.
The best ability of all time matches that of the heaven.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

One good at being a warrior is not warlike.
One good at warfare avoids anger.
One good at conquering the enemy does not join with him.
One good at using men places himself below them.
We refer to these as the virtue in not fighting and the power in using men.
Such a one is called a companion worthy of Heaven, the ultimate attainment achieved for all time.
(Ⅷ)


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