Chapter 77 On the way of heaven.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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77. 1  
Should the way of heaven not resemble the bending of a bow?

It is the way of heaven to be dark and profound. It chooses the different sorts of things to use them for examples.

It presses down what is high. It raises what is low. It diminishes what has too much. It enriches what has too little.

This means: In bending a bow it is adjusted. Being so it can be used. For when the high is pressed down and the low drawn upwards, the strong diminished and the weak repleted, then this is the way of heaven.

It is the way of heaven to diminish what has too much and to replete what has not enough.

It is the way of heaven to diminish what has a surplus and to replete what is deficient. It always thinks adjustment to be superior.

The way of man is not like this.

The way of man is contrary to that of heaven.

He diminishes what has not enough and repletes what has too much.

The men of the world take from the poor to give to the rich. They rob the weak to benefit the strong.

Who is able to have abundance to give it to the empire? Only he who has Tao.

This means: Who is able to remain on the throne where he has got abundance and to be himself sparing with dignities and emoluments in order to give to those within the empire who have not got enough? Only a prince possessing Tao is able to act thus.

Therefore the saint acts without making claims.

The saint produces Te and displays it without claiming recompense.

When merit has been accomplished, he does not stay.

By his merit he accomplishes his affairs, and then he does not stay on the throne.

He does not wish to show himself as a worthy.

He does not wish to show himself to men so that they may recognize the worthiness of his self. He declines merit, does not stay within the splendour, is afraid of heaven and diminishes whatever has got too much.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 天之道,其猶張弓與?高者抑之,下者舉之;有餘者損之,不足者補之。天之道,損有餘而補不足。人之道,則不然,損不足以奉有餘。孰能有餘以奉天下,唯有道者。是以聖人為而不恃,功成而不處,其不欲見賢。

《老子河上公章句·天道》: 天之道,其猶張弓與!高者抑之,下者舉之,有餘者損之,不足者補之。天之道,損有餘而補不足。人之道則不然,損不足以奉有餘。孰能有餘以奉天下?唯有道者。是以聖人為而不恃,功成而不處,其不欲見賢。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 天下□□□□□者也,高者印之,下者舉之,有餘者損之,不足者補之。故天之道,損有□□□□□□□□□不然,損□□□奉有餘。孰能有餘而有以取奉於天者乎?□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□見賢也。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 天之道酉張弓也。高者印之,下者舉之;有余者云之,不足者□□□□□□□,云有余而益不足。人之道,云不足而奉又余。夫孰能又余而□□奉於天之,唯又道者乎。是以聖人為而弗又,成功而弗居也。若此其不欲見賢也。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

天之道,其猶張弓與!天道暗昧,舉物類以為喻也。高者抑之,下者舉之,有餘者損之,不足者補之。言張弓和調之,如是乃可用耳,夫抑高舉下,損強益弱,天之道也。天之道,損有餘而補不足。天道損有餘而益謙,常以中和為上。人之道則不然,損不足以奉有餘。人道則與天道反,世俗之人損貧以奉富,奪弱以益強也。孰能有餘以奉天下?唯有道者。言誰能居有餘之位,自省爵祿以奉天下不足者乎?唯有道之君能行也。是以聖人為而不恃,聖人為德施,不恃其報也。功成而不處,功成事就,不處其位。其不欲見賢。不欲使人知己之賢,匿功不居榮,畏天損有餘也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Heaven's Way is indeed like the bending of a bow. When (the string) is high, bring it down. When it is low, raise it up. When it is excessive, reduce it. When it is insufficient, supplement it.
The Way of Heaven reduces whatever is excessive and supplements whatever in insufficient. The way of man is different. It reduces the insufficient to offer to the excessive.
Who is able to have excess to offer to the world? Only the man of Tao.
Therefore the sage acts, but does not rely on his own ability. He accomplishes his task, but does not claim credit for it. He has no desire to display his excellence.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

The way of heaven,
Is it not like stretching a bow?
What is high up is pressed down,
What is low down is lifted up;
What has surplus (yu yü) is reduced,
What is deficient (pu tsu) is supplemented.
The way of heaven,
It reduces those who have surpluses,
To supplement those who are deficient.
The human way is just not so.
It reduces those who are deficient,
To offer those who have surpluses.
Who can offer his surpluses to the world?
Only a person of Tao.
Therefore the sage works (wei) without holding on to,
Accomplishes without claiming credit.
Is it not because he does not want to show off his merits?
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Is not the Tao of heaven like the drawing of a bow? It brings down the part which is high; it raises the part which is low; it lessens the part which is redundant (convex); it fills up the part which is insufficient (concave). The Tao of heaven is to lessen the redundant and fill up the insufficient. The Tao of man, on the contrary, is to take from the insufficient and give to the redundant. Who can take from the redundant and give to the insufficient? Only he who has Tao can. Therefore the Sage does not horde. The more he helps others, the more he benefits himself the more he gives to others, the more he gets himself. The Tao of heaven does one good but never does one harm; the Tao of the Sage acts but never contends.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
天 // 天 // tiān // ① ciel ② jour ③ journée ④ temps ⑤ saison ⑥ nature ⑦ univers // Chinese-French
天 // 天 // tiān // ① day ② sky ③ heaven // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
猶 // 犹 // yóu // ① comme ② encore // Chinese-French
猶 // 犹 // yóu // ① as if ② (just) like ③ just as ④ still ⑤ yet // CC-CEDICT
張 // 张 // zhāng // ① (classificateur pour les objets plats, les feuilles, les bulletins de vote) ② (nom de famille) ③ ouvrir // Chinese-French
張 // 张 // zhāng // ① surname Zhang // CC-CEDICT
張 // 张 // zhāng // ① to open up ② to spread ③ sheet of paper ④ classifier for flat objects, sheet ⑤ classifier for votes // CC-CEDICT
弓 // 弓 // gōng // ① arc ② courbé en arc ③ mesure agraire de 5 pieds ④ 57e radical // Chinese-French
弓 // 弓 // gōng // ① surname Gong // CC-CEDICT
弓 // 弓 // gōng // ① a bow (weapon) ② CL:張|张[zhang1] ③ to bend ④ to arch (one's back etc) // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
高 // 高 // gāo // ① haut ② élevé ③ grand ④ supérieur // Chinese-French
高 // 高 // gāo // ① surname Gao // CC-CEDICT
高 // 高 // gāo // ① high ② tall ③ above average ④ loud ⑤ your (honorific) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
抑 // 抑 // yì // ① contenir ② contrôler // Chinese-French
抑 // 抑 // yì // ① to restrain ② to restrict ③ to keep down ④ or // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
舉 // 举 // jǔ // ① lever ② soulever ③ choisir ④ élire ⑤ citer ⑥ action ⑦ exploit ⑧ entier ⑨ tout // Chinese-French
舉 // 举 // jǔ // ① to lift ② to hold up ③ to cite ④ to enumerate ⑤ to act ⑥ to raise ⑦ to choose ⑧ to elect ⑨ act ⑩ move ⑪ deed // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① avoir assez de ② avoir de l'excédent // Chinese-French
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① to have an abundance // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① perdre ② diminuer ③ réduire ④ nuire à ⑤ endommager // Chinese-French
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① to decrease ② to lose ③ to damage ④ to harm ⑤ (coll.) to speak sarcastically ⑥ to deride ⑦ caustic ⑧ mean ⑨ one of the 64 trigrams of the Book of Changes (old) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① ne pas valoir ② insuffisant ③ pas assez // Chinese-French
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① insufficient ② lacking ③ deficiency ④ not enough ⑤ inadequate ⑥ not worth ⑦ cannot ⑧ should not // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
補 // 补 // bǔ // ① réparer ② rapiécer ③ combler ④ suppléer ⑤ compléter ⑥ tonifier ⑦ fortifier ⑧ avantage // Chinese-French
補 // 补 // bǔ // ① to repair ② to patch ③ to mend ④ to make up for ⑤ to fill (a vacancy) ⑥ to supplement // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
天 // 天 // tiān // ① ciel ② jour ③ journée ④ temps ⑤ saison ⑥ nature ⑦ univers // Chinese-French
天 // 天 // tiān // ① day ② sky ③ heaven // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① perdre ② diminuer ③ réduire ④ nuire à ⑤ endommager // Chinese-French
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① to decrease ② to lose ③ to damage ④ to harm ⑤ (coll.) to speak sarcastically ⑥ to deride ⑦ caustic ⑧ mean ⑨ one of the 64 trigrams of the Book of Changes (old) // CC-CEDICT
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① avoir assez de ② avoir de l'excédent // Chinese-French
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① to have an abundance // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
補 // 补 // bǔ // ① réparer ② rapiécer ③ combler ④ suppléer ⑤ compléter ⑥ tonifier ⑦ fortifier ⑧ avantage // Chinese-French
補 // 补 // bǔ // ① to repair ② to patch ③ to mend ④ to make up for ⑤ to fill (a vacancy) ⑥ to supplement // CC-CEDICT
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① ne pas valoir ② insuffisant ③ pas assez // Chinese-French
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① insufficient ② lacking ③ deficiency ④ not enough ⑤ inadequate ⑥ not worth ⑦ cannot ⑧ should not // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
不然 // 不然 // bù rán // ① il n'en est pas ainsi ② autrement ③ sinon // Chinese-French
不然 // 不然 // bù rán // ① not so ② no ③ or else ④ otherwise ⑤ if not ⑥ How about ...? // CC-CEDICT
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① perdre ② diminuer ③ réduire ④ nuire à ⑤ endommager // Chinese-French
損 // 损 // sǔn // ① to decrease ② to lose ③ to damage ④ to harm ⑤ (coll.) to speak sarcastically ⑥ to deride ⑦ caustic ⑧ mean ⑨ one of the 64 trigrams of the Book of Changes (old) // CC-CEDICT
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① ne pas valoir ② insuffisant ③ pas assez // Chinese-French
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① insufficient ② lacking ③ deficiency ④ not enough ⑤ inadequate ⑥ not worth ⑦ cannot ⑧ should not // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
奉 // 奉 // fèng // ① présenter avec respect ② vénérer // Chinese-French
奉 // 奉 // fèng // ① to offer (tribute) ② to present respectfully (to superior, ancestor, deity etc) ③ to esteem ④ to revere ⑤ to believe in (a religion) ⑥ to wait upon ⑦ to accept orders (from superior) // CC-CEDICT
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① avoir assez de ② avoir de l'excédent // Chinese-French
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① to have an abundance // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① capacité ② énergie ③ pouvoir ④ être capable de // Chinese-French
能 // 能 // néng // ① surname Neng // CC-CEDICT
能 // 能 // néng // ① can ② to be able to ③ might possibly ④ ability ⑤ (physics) energy // CC-CEDICT
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① avoir assez de ② avoir de l'excédent // Chinese-French
有餘 // 有余 // yǒu yú // ① to have an abundance // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
奉天 // 奉天 // fèng tiān // ① old name for Shenyang 瀋陽|沈阳 in modern Liaoning province // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
唯有 // 唯有 // wéi yǒu // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯有 // 唯有 // wéi yǒu // ① only // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
恃 // 恃 // shì // ① s'appuyer sur ② compter sur // Chinese-French
恃 // 恃 // shì // ① to rely on ② mother (formal) // CC-CEDICT
功 // 功 // gōng // ① mérite, services ② effort, travail // Chinese-French
功 // 功 // gōng // ① meritorious deed or service ② achievement ③ result ④ service ⑤ accomplishment ⑥ work (physics) // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
見 // 见 // jiàn // ① voir ② apercevoir ③ rencontrer ④ être au contact de ⑤ être exposé à ⑥ se référer à // Chinese-French
見 // 见 // jiàn // ① to see ② to meet ③ to appear (to be sth) ④ to interview // CC-CEDICT
見 // 见 // xiàn // ① apparaître ② se montrer // Chinese-French
見 // 见 // xiàn // ① to appear ② also written 現|现[xian4] // CC-CEDICT
賢 // 贤 // xián // ① sage ② homme vertueux ③ sage ④ vertueux // Chinese-French
賢 // 贤 // xián // ① worthy or virtuous person ② honorific used for a person of the same or a younger generation // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The way of Heaven is like the opening of the bow,
Which flats the high, lifts the low,
Reduces the surplus, and compensates for losses.
The way of Heaven cuts the superfluous
To compensate the meager.
The way of Mankind cuts the meager
To add to the superfluous.
Who can have more than enough to provide for the world?
Only the ones who are good at keeping the Way.
Therefore, the wise person does but occupies nothing,
Achieves but does not feel successful,
Because he/she does not want to be praised as a sage.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The Dao of Heaven, is it not like when a bow is pulled?
As the high end gets pulled down, the low end gets pulled up: so those who have more than enough are diminished, and those who have less than enough get augmented.
The Dao of Heaven diminishes those who have more than enough and augments those who have less than enough, but the Dao of man is not like this,
For it diminishes those who have less than enough in order to give to those who have more than enough.
Who can take his more than enough and give it to all under Heaven?
It is only one who has the Dao.
Thus it is that the sage acts, yet they [the people] do not depend on him, and he achieves success yet takes no pride in it, for he does not want to appear as a worthy [xian].
(Ⅷ)


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