Chapter 80 How to stand alone.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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80. 1  
The country ought to be small and the people sparse.

Though a saint may rule a large country, he ought to treat it like a small and restricted area and not to be extravagant. Though a nation be numerous, it ought to look sparse and not conspicuous.

Let them be divided in tens and hundreds.

If one lets everybody within the people have his clan and village, his divisions into tens and hundreds, then the poor and the rich, the gentry and the low-born will not turn against each other.

As to the tools of the people, one ought not to use them.

The tools are the tools of agriculture. One ought not to use them [means that] one ought not to call for the people and to tear them away [from agriculture] during the good season.

Let the people regard death as important.

If the ruler is able to make the people promote the useful and keep away from the hurtful, so that everybody gets his place, then the people will take death serious and hanker after life.

Then they will not go far away.

If one governs without being troublesome, then the people are content with their professions. Therefore they do not go away and do not depart from their permanent habitations.

Though there be ships and carriages, they will go nowhere.

One ought to be quiet and without action, one ought not to make outward display, one ought not to love pleasures outside or within the house.

Though one may have arms one ought not to show them.

One ought not to entertain hatred against the empire.

Let the people return to the knotted strings and use them.

Do away with externals and return to reality. Be sincere and without fraud.

Make their food sweet to them.

Let their simple meals be agreeable to them and do not take their food away from the people.

Make their clothes beautiful to them.

Let their coarse garments appear beautiful to them and do not induce them to esteem variegated colours.

Make their homes peaceful to them.

Let them find peace within their reed-huts and do not instigate them to like ornamented dwellings.

Make their customs agreeable to them.

Let them be pleased with their simple customs, so that they do not want to change them.

Though neighbouring countries may be mutually visible and the voices of the cocks and dogs audible,

If their mutual distance is near.

The people will reach old age and death without mutual intercourse.

They have no wish for such.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 小國寡民。使有什伯之器而不用;使民重死而不遠徙。雖有舟輿,無所乘之,雖有甲兵,無所陳之。使民復結繩而用之,甘其食,美其服,安其居,樂其俗。鄰國相望,雞犬之聲相聞,民至老死,不相往來。

《老子河上公章句·獨立》: 小國寡民,使有什伯之器而不用,使民重死而不遠徙。雖有舟輿,無所乘之;雖有甲兵,無所陳之。使民復結繩而用之,甘其食,美其服,安其居,樂其俗。鄰國相望,雞犬之聲相聞,民至老死不相往來。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 小國寡民。使有十百人器而勿用;使民重死而遠徙;又周車無所乘之;有甲兵無所陳之。使民復結繩而用之,甘其食,美其服,樂其俗,安其居。鄰國相望,雞犬之□□聞,民至老死,不相往來。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

小國寡民,聖人雖治大國,猶以為小,儉約不奢泰。民雖眾,猶若寡少,不敢勞之也。使有什伯之器而不用,使民各有部曲什伯,貴賤不相犯也。器謂農人之器。而不用,不徵召奪民良時也。使民重死而不遠徙。君能為民興利除害,各得其所,則民重死而貪生也。政令不煩則民安其業,故不遠遷徙離其常處也。雖有舟輿,無所乘之;清靜無為,不作煩華,不好出入遊娛也。雖有甲兵,無所陳之。無怨惡於天下。使民復結繩而用之,去文反質,信無欺也。甘其食,甘其蔬食,不漁食百姓也。美其服,美其惡衣,不貴五色。安其居,安其茅茨,不好文飾之屋。樂其俗。樂其質朴之俗,不轉移也。鄰國相望,雞犬之聲相聞,相去近也。民至老死不相往來。其無情欲。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Let there be a small country with few people. Let there be ten times and a hundred times as many utensils. But let them not be used. Let the people value their lives highly and not migrate far.
Even if there are ships and carriages, none will ride in them. Even if there are arrows and weapons, none will display them.
Let the people again knot cords and use them (in place of writing). Let them relish their food, beautify their clothing, be content with their homes, and delight in their customs.
Though neighbouring communities overlook one another and the crowing of cocks and the barking of dogs can be heard, Yet the people there may grow old and die without ever visiting one another.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

A small state with few people.
Let the implements (ch'ih) for ten and hundred men be unused,
Let the people fear death such that they do not move far away.
Although there are boats and carriages,
There are no places to ride them to.
Although there are weapons and armours,
There are no occasions to display them.
Let the people again tie ropes and use them (as memory aids).
Let them enjoy their food,
Consider their clothing beautiful,
Be contented with their dwellings,
And happy with their customs.
The neighbouring states overlooking one another,
The dogs' barkings and cocks' crowings are heard from other states,
Yet till they are old and dying the people do not visit one another.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Supposing here is a small state with few people.
Though there are various vessels I will not have them put in use.
I will make the people regard death as a grave matter and not go far away.
Though they have boats and carraiges they will not travel in them.
Though they have armour and weapons they will not show them.
I will let them restore the use of knotted cords (instead of writing).
They will be satisfied with their food.
Delighted in their dress;
Comfortable in their dwellings;
Happy with their customs.
Though the neighbouring states are within sight
And their cocks' crowing and dogs' barking within hearing;
The people (of the small state) will not go there their whole lives.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① petit ② jeune // Chinese-French
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① small ② tiny ③ few ④ young // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
寡 // 寡 // guǎ // ① peu ② fade ③ monotone ④ veuve // Chinese-French
寡 // 寡 // guǎ // ① few ② scant ③ widowed // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
使 // 使 // shǐ // ① envoyé ② utiliser ③ employer ④ faire faire ⑤ envoyer // Chinese-French
使 // 使 // shǐ // ① to make ② to cause ③ to enable ④ to use ⑤ to employ ⑥ to send ⑦ to instruct sb to do sth ⑧ envoy ⑨ messenger // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
什 // 什 // shén // ① what // CC-CEDICT
甚 // 什 // shén // ① que ② quoi ③ tout ④ n'importe quel ⑤ quelconque // Chinese-French
什 // 什 // shí // ① ten (used in fractions, writing checks etc) ② assorted ③ miscellaneous // CC-CEDICT
伯 // 伯 // bó // ① oncle (frère aîné du père) ② frère le plus âgé ③ comte // Chinese-French
伯 // 伯 // bó // ① father's elder brother ② senior ③ paternal elder uncle ④ eldest of brothers ⑤ respectful form of address ⑥ Count, third of five orders of nobility 五等爵位[wu3 deng3 jue2 wei4] // CC-CEDICT
伯 // 伯 // bà // ① variant of 霸[ba4] // CC-CEDICT
伯 // 伯 // bǎi // ① cent (ancien) // Chinese-French
伯 // 伯 // bǎi // ① one hundred (old) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
器 // 器 // qì // ① ustensile ② appareil ③ objet ④ organe ⑤ capacité ⑥ talent // Chinese-French
器 // 器 // qì // ① device ② tool ③ utensil ④ CL:臺|台[tai2] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不用 // 不用 // bù yòng // ① ce n'est pas la peine ... // Chinese-French
不用 // 不用 // bù yòng // ① need not // CC-CEDICT
使 // 使 // shǐ // ① envoyé ② utiliser ③ employer ④ faire faire ⑤ envoyer // Chinese-French
使 // 使 // shǐ // ① to make ② to cause ③ to enable ④ to use ⑤ to employ ⑥ to send ⑦ to instruct sb to do sth ⑧ envoy ⑨ messenger // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① poids ② lourd ③ important ④ grave // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // zhòng // ① heavy ② serious ③ to attach importance to // CC-CEDICT
重 // 重 // chóng // ① répéter ② à nouveau // Chinese-French
重 // 重 // chóng // ① to repeat ② repetition ③ again ④ re- ⑤ classifier: layer // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
遠 // 远 // yuǎn // ① éloigné ② loin // Chinese-French
遠 // 远 // yuǎn // ① far ② distant ③ remote ④ (intensifier in a comparison) by far ⑤ much (lower etc) // CC-CEDICT
遠 // 远 // yuàn // ① to distance oneself from (classical) // CC-CEDICT
徙 // 徙 // xǐ // ① se déplacer ② déménager // Chinese-French
徙 // 徙 // xǐ // ① (literary) to change one's residence // CC-CEDICT
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① bien que ② malgré que // Chinese-French
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① although ② even though // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
舟 // 舟 // zhōu // ① bateau // Chinese-French
舟 // 舟 // zhōu // ① boat // CC-CEDICT
輿 // 舆 // yú // ① public ② char ③ chaise à porteurs // Chinese-French
輿 // 舆 // yú // ① carriage ② sedan chair ③ world // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
乘 // 乘 // chéng // ① prendre (un moyen de transport) ② monter dans ③ profiter de qch ④ exploiter ⑤ multiplier // Chinese-French
乘 // 乘 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
乘 // 乘 // chéng // ① to ride ② to mount ③ to make use of ④ to avail oneself of ⑤ to take advantage of ⑥ to multiply (mathematics) ⑦ Buddhist sect or creed // CC-CEDICT
椉 // 乘 // chéng // ① old variant of 乘[cheng2] // CC-CEDICT
乘 // 乘 // shèng // ① four horse military chariot (archaic) ② four (archaic) ③ generic term for history books // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① bien que ② malgré que // Chinese-French
雖 // 虽 // suī // ① although ② even though // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
甲 // 甲 // jiǎ // ① le premier des 10 Troncs célestes ② le premier ③ le meilleur ④ carapace ⑤ armure // Chinese-French
甲 // 甲 // jiǎ // "① first of the ten Heavenly Stems 十天干[shi2 tian1 gan1] ② (used for an unspecified person or thing) ③ first (in a list, as a party to a contract etc) ④ letter ""A"" or roman ""I"" in list ""A, B, C"", or ""I, II, III"" etc ⑤ armor plating ⑥ shell or carapace ⑦ (of the fingers or toes) nail ⑧ bladed leather or metal armor (old) ⑨ ranking system used in the Imperial examinations (old) ⑩ civil administration unit (old) ⑪ ancient Chinese compass point: 75°" // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
陳 // 陈 // chén // ① arranger ② exposer à un supérieur ③ vieux ④ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
陳 // 陈 // chén // ① surname Chen ② vassal state during the Spring and Autumn Period 770-475 BC ③ Chen of the Southern dynasties (557-589) // CC-CEDICT
陳 // 陈 // chén // ① to lay out ② to exhibit ③ to display ④ to narrate ⑤ to state ⑥ to explain ⑦ to tell ⑧ old ⑨ stale // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
使 // 使 // shǐ // ① envoyé ② utiliser ③ employer ④ faire faire ⑤ envoyer // Chinese-French
使 // 使 // shǐ // ① to make ② to cause ③ to enable ④ to use ⑤ to employ ⑥ to send ⑦ to instruct sb to do sth ⑧ envoy ⑨ messenger // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
復 // 复 // fù // ① to go and return ② to return ③ to resume ④ to return to a normal or original state ⑤ to repeat ⑥ again ⑦ to recover ⑧ to restore ⑨ to turn over ⑩ to reply ⑪ to answer ⑫ to reply to a letter ⑬ to retaliate ⑭ to carry out // CC-CEDICT
結 // 结 // jié // ① nouer ② noeud ③ unir ④ terminer // Chinese-French
結 // 结 // jié // ① knot ② sturdy ③ bond ④ to tie ⑤ to bind ⑥ to check out (of a hotel) // CC-CEDICT
結 // 结 // jiē // ① robuste ② solide ③ produire des fruits // Chinese-French
結 // 结 // jiē // ① (of a plant) to produce (fruit or seeds) ② Taiwan pr. [jie2] // CC-CEDICT
繩 // 绳 // shéng // ① corde ② ficelle // Chinese-French
繩 // 绳 // shéng // ① rope ② CL:根[gen1] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
用 // 用 // yòng // ① utiliser ② employer ③ avoir à faire ceci ou cela ④ manger ou boire ⑤ frais ou dépenses ⑥ utilité ⑦ c'est pourquoi ⑧ donc ⑨ par conséquent // Chinese-French
用 // 用 // yòng // ① to use ② to employ ③ to have to ④ to eat or drink ⑤ expense or outlay ⑥ usefulness ⑦ hence ⑧ therefore // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
甘 // 甘 // gān // ① volontiers ② doux ③ agréable // Chinese-French
甘 // 甘 // gān // ① surname Gan ② abbr. for Gansu Province 甘肅省|甘肃省[Gan1 su4 Sheng3] // CC-CEDICT
甘 // 甘 // gān // ① sweet ② willing // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
食 // 食 // shí // ① manger ② nourriture ③ aliments pour animaux ④ éclipse // Chinese-French
食 // 食 // shí // ① to eat ② food ③ animal feed ④ eclipse // CC-CEDICT
食 // 食 // sì // ① nourrir // Chinese-French
食 // 食 // sì // ① to feed // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beau, élégant ② excellent ③ louer ④ abréviation d'Amérique // Chinese-French
美 // 美 // měi // ① the Americas ② abbr. for 美洲[Mei3 zhou1] ③ USA ④ abbr. for 美國|美国[Mei3 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
美 // 美 // měi // ① beautiful ② very satisfactory ③ good ④ to beautify ⑤ to be pleased with oneself // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
服 // 服 // fú // ① servir ② habits ③ vêtement ④ deuil ⑤ obéir // Chinese-French
服 // 服 // fú // ① clothes ② dress ③ garment ④ to serve (in the military, a prison sentence etc) ⑤ to obey ⑥ to convince ⑦ to admire ⑧ to acclimatize ⑨ to take (medicine) ⑩ mourning clothes ⑪ to wear mourning clothes // CC-CEDICT
服 // 服 // fù // ① dose (médecine) // Chinese-French
服 // 服 // fù // ① dose (measure word for medicine) ② Taiwan pr. [fu2] // CC-CEDICT
安 // 安 // ān // ① paix ② calme ③ sécurité ④ calmer ⑤ rassurer ⑥ installer ⑦ pacifier ⑧ poser ⑨ être satisfait de ⑩ calme ⑪ paisible // Chinese-French
安 // 安 // ān // ① surname An // CC-CEDICT
安 // 安 // ān // ① content ② calm ③ still ④ quiet ⑤ safe ⑥ secure ⑦ in good health ⑧ to find a place for ⑨ to install ⑩ to fix ⑪ to fit ⑫ to bring (a charge against sb) ⑬ to pacify ⑭ to harbor (good intentions) ⑮ security ⑯ safety ⑰ peace ⑱ ampere // CC-CEDICT
安东乃特 // 安 // 索菲 [ān suǒ fēi // ① Anne Sophie // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① joyeux ② gai // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① surname Le // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // lè // ① happy ② cheerful ③ to laugh // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① musique // Chinese-French
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① surname Yue // CC-CEDICT
樂 // 乐 // yuè // ① music // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
俗 // 俗 // sú // ① coutume ② populaire ③ vulgaire // Chinese-French
俗 // 俗 // sú // ① custom ② convention ③ popular ④ common ⑤ coarse ⑥ vulgar ⑦ secular // CC-CEDICT
鄰國 // 邻国 // lín guó // ① voisin // Chinese-French
鄰國 // 邻国 // lín guó // ① bordering country ② neighbor country ③ neighboring countries ④ surrounding countries // CC-CEDICT
相望 // 相望 // xiāng wàng // ① se regarder les uns les autres ② se faire face // Chinese-French
相望 // 相望 // xiāng wàng // ① to look at one another ② to face each other // CC-CEDICT
雞 // 鸡 // jī // ① poule ② coq ③ poulet // Chinese-French
雞 // 鸡 // jī // ① fowl ② chicken ③ CL:隻|只[zhi1] ④ (slang) prostitute // CC-CEDICT
犬 // 犬 // quǎn // ① chien ② 94e radical // Chinese-French
犬 // 犬 // quǎn // ① dog // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
聲 // 声 // shēng // ① son ② bruit ③ voix ④ ton // Chinese-French
聲 // 声 // shēng // ① sound ② voice ③ tone ④ noise ⑤ classifier for sounds // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① entendre ② sentir (une odeur) ③ information // Chinese-French
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① surname Wen // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① to hear ② news ③ well-known ④ famous ⑤ reputation ⑥ fame ⑦ to smell ⑧ to sniff at // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
至 // 至 // zhì // ① jusqu'à ② à ③ très // Chinese-French
至 // 至 // zhì // ① to arrive ② most ③ to ④ until // CC-CEDICT
老 // 老 // lǎo // ① vieux ② âgé ③ ancien ④ démodé ⑤ toujours ⑥ dur // Chinese-French
老 // 老 // lǎo // ① prefix used before the surname of a person or a numeral indicating the order of birth of the children in a family or to indicate affection or familiarity ② old (of people) ③ venerable (person) ④ experienced ⑤ of long standing ⑥ always ⑦ all the time ⑧ of the past ⑨ very ⑩ outdated ⑪ (of meat etc) tough // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① mutuellement ② l'un l'autre ③ examiner ④ évaluer // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① surname Xiang // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiāng // ① each other ② one another ③ mutually // CC-CEDICT
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① apparence ② air ③ photo // Chinese-French
相 // 相 // xiàng // ① appearance ② portrait ③ picture ④ government minister ⑤ (physics) phase ⑥ (literary) to appraise (esp. by scrutinizing physical features) ⑦ to read sb's fortune (by physiognomy, palmistry etc) // CC-CEDICT
往來 // 往来 // wǎng lái // ① échange ② aller et retour // Chinese-French
往來 // 往来 // wǎng lái // ① dealings ② contacts ③ to go back and forth // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The wise person reduces the importance of governments
And simplifies the modes of living,
So that people use fewer tools and wares
And treasure simplicity in their lives,
So that, though there are vehicles,
People do not take them.
And, though there are weapons,
People do not carry them.
And, though there are records,
Tying knots will serve the record-keeping purpose.
Thus, the highest political achievement is one
In which people savor their food,
Like the beauty of their clothes,
Appreciate their safe and peaceful homes,
Enjoy their social customs;
And in which roosters and dogs
Can be heard between countries;
But people, all their lives,
Have no need to go across the borders.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Let the state be small and the common folk few.
Let there be military equipment for a company, then it would not be used.
Let the common folk take death seriously, then they would not travel far.
Although they had boats and carriages, they would have no occasion to ride in them.
Although they had shields and weapons, they would have no occasion to array them for battle.
Let the people again knot cords, then they would use them.
They would find their food so delicious, their clothes so beautiful, their dwellings so satisfying, and their customs so delightful that, though neighboring states might provide distant views of each other and the sounds of each other's chickens and dogs might even be heard, the common folk would reach old age without ever going back and forth between such places.
(Ⅷ)


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