Chapter 38 Discussion on Te.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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38. 1  
Superior Te is without Te. Therefore it possesses Te.

By superior Te the princes of highest antiquity are meant. Their Te was great and nameless. Therefore it is called superior Te. They are called without Te, as they did not use Te to instruct the people. They were conservative and natural and nourished the life of the people. Their Te was invisible. Therefore they are called without Te. It is said that their Te became one with heaven and earth, became one with the currents of the atmosphere. Thereby the people attained perfection.

Inferior Te does not lose Te. Therefore it is not Te.

By inferior Te the princes are meant who have got names and designations. Their Te was not equal to the superior Te. Therefore it is called inferior Te. Who does not lose Te, his Te can be seen, his merit can be exalted. By having a name it reaches his personality. Therefore it is not Te.

Superior Te is without action, and thereby nothing is done.

This means: Take Tao for your model and be peaceful and quiet. Have nothing to do. This is called nameless action.

Inferior Te acts and has thereby action.

This means the business of ordering and governing. It means that one thereby creates a name for oneself.

Superior humanity acts, and nothing is thereby done.

By superior humanity a prince following humanity is meant. There is nothing superior to his humanity. Therefore it is called superior humanity. Who acts according to it, acts according to humanity and benignity. His merit is accomplished, his doings are established, and he does not strive for action.

Superior justice acts and thereby has action.

Justice is applied for making decisions. By doing so one cares for oneself. By killing presents to oneself.

Superior ceremonial acts, and nobody corresponds to it.

By this a prince of high-standing ceremonial is meant. There is nothing more elated than his ceremonial. Therefore it is called superior ceremonial. This means: To act according to the ceremonial and thus to give regulations is the ritual of hypocrisy. When the flower is displayed, the fruit perishes. Outwardness and hypocrisy are thereby multiplied. Activity detaches itself from Tao and is not able to correspond to it.

Thereupon it stretches out its arms and forces them.

This means: Who talks much cannot correspond to it. The prince and his subjects contend with each other. Therefore it stretches out its arms and draws them towards each other.

Therefore: If one loses Tao, then Te follows.

This means: If Tao decays, then Te originates.

If one loses Te, then humanity originates.

This means: If Te decays, then humanity and love become visible

If one loses humanity, then justice originates.

This means: If humanity decays, then one distinguishes the light of justice.

If one loses humanity, then the ceremonial originates.

This means: If justice decays, then one exhibits the ceremonial according to the presents, so as to walk about with jade and silk.

Now the ceremonial is the diminution of faith and sincerity

This means: The ceremonial neglects the fundamentals and cultivates superficiality. Therefore faith and sincerity decay from day to day.

and the head of confusion.

The ceremonious man slights reality and esteems outwardness. Therefore justice and uprightness daily diminish, and vileness and confusion daily start up.

Foreknowledge is the flower of Tao

If one knows nothing, then one talks. Knowledge creates foreknowledge. Such a man loses the reality of Tao and obtains its flower,

and the beginning of stupidity.

This means: A man who possesses foreknowledge leads to the beginning of stupidity and obscuration.

Therefore a great man dwells within its fulness.

A great man is a prince who possesses Tao and Te. Who dwells in fulness allows the body to dwell in simplicity.

He does not dwell in its scantiness.

Who does not remain with his body and resists Tao, is troubled within the world.

He dwells within its fruit.

He dwells in faith and sincerity

He does not dwell within its flower.

He lays no stress on words.

Therefore he avoids that and seizes this.

He avoids yonder outwardness and seizes this reality.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 上德不德,是以有德;下德不失德,是以無德。上德無為而無以為;下德為之而有以為。上仁為之而無以為;上義為之而有以為。上禮為之而莫之應,則攘臂而扔之。故失道而後德,失德而後仁,失仁而後義,失義而後禮。夫禮者,忠信之薄,而亂之首。前識者,道之華,而愚之始。是以大丈夫處其厚,不居其薄;處其實,不居其華。故去彼取此。

《老子河上公章句·論德》: 上德不德,是以有德。下德不失德,是以無德。上德無為而無以為,下德為之而有以為。上仁為之而無以為,上義為之而有以為。上禮為之而莫之應,則攘臂而扔之。故失道而後德,失德而後仁,失仁而後義,失義而後禮。夫禮者,忠信之薄而亂之首。前識者,道之華而愚之始。是以大丈夫處其厚,不居其薄,處其實,不居其華。故去彼取此。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□德。上德無□□無以為也。上仁為之□□以為也。上義為之而有以為也;上禮□□□□□□□□攘臂而乃之。故失道。失道矣而后德,失德而后仁,失仁而后義,□義而□□□□□□□□□□而亂之首也。□□□,道之華也,而愚之首也。是以大丈夫居其厚而不居其泊,居其實不居其華。故去皮取此。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 上德不德,是以有德;下德不失德,是以無德。上德無為而無以為也;上仁為之而無以為也。上○為之而有以為也;上禮為之而莫之應也,則攘臂而乃之。故失道而后德,失德而句仁,失仁而句義∠,失義而句禮。夫禮者,忠信之泊也而亂之首也。前識者,道之華也,而愚之首也。是以大丈夫居□□□居其泊;居其實而不居其華。故去罷而取此。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

上德不德,上德,謂太古無名號之君,德大無上,故言上德也。不德者,言其不以德教民,因循自然,養人性命,其德不見,故言不德也。是以有德。言其德合於天地,和氣流行,民德以全也。下德不失德,下德,謂號謚之君,德不及上德,故言下德也。不失德者,其德可見,其功可稱也。是以無德。以有名號及其身故。上德無為謂法道安靜,無所施為也。而無以為,言無以名號為也。下德為之言為教令,施政事也。而有以為。言以為己取名號也上仁為之上仁謂行仁之君,其仁無上,故言上仁。為之者,為人恩也。而無以為,功成事立,無以執為。上義為之為義以斷割也。而有以為。動作以為己,殺人以成威,賊下以自奉也。上禮為之謂上禮之君,其禮無上,故言上禮。為之者,言為禮制度,序威儀也。而莫之應,言禮華盛實衰,飾偽煩多,動則離道,不可應也。則攘臂而扔之。言禮煩多不可應,上下忿爭,故攘臂相仍引。故失道而後德,言道衰而德化生也。失德而後仁,言德衰而仁愛見也。失仁而後義,言仁衰而分義明也。失義而後禮。言義衰則失禮聘,行玉帛也。夫禮者,忠信之薄言禮廢本治末,忠信日以衰薄。而亂之首。禮者賤質而貴文,故正直日以少,邪亂日以生。前識者,道之華不知而言知為前識,此人失道之時,得道之華。而愚之始。言前識之人,愚闇之倡始也。是以大丈夫處其厚,大丈夫謂得道之君也。處其厚者,謂處身於敦樸。不居其薄,不處身違道,為世煩亂也。處其實,處忠信也。不居其華。不尚華言也。故去彼取此。去彼華薄,取此厚實。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

The man of superior virtue is not (conscious of) his virtue, And in this way he really possesses virtue. The man of inferior virtue never loses (sight of) his virtue, And in this way he loses his virtue.
The man of superior virtue takes no action, but has no ulterior motive to do so. The man of inferior virtue takes action, and has an ulterior motive to do so.
The man of superior humanity takes action, but has no ulterior motive to do so. The man of superior righteousness takes action, and has an ulterior motive to do so. The man of superior propriety takes action, And when people do not respond to it, he will stretch his arms and force it on them.
Therefore when Tao is lost, only then does the doctrine of virtue arise. When virtue is lost, only then does the doctrine of humanity arise. When humanity is lost, only then does the doctrine of righteousness arise. When righteousness is lost, only then does the doctrine of propriety arise.
Now, propriety is a superficial expression of loyalty and faithfulness, and the beginning of disorder. Those who are the first to know have the flowers of Tao but are the beginning of ignorance.
For this reason the great man dwells in the thick, and does not rest with the thin. He dwells in the fruit, and does not rest with the flower. Therefore he rejects the one, and accepts the other.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

A person of high te is not te,
Therefore such a person has te;
A person of low te does not lose (shih) te,
Therefore such a person has no te.
A person of high te does not act (wei),
For such a person has no cause for action;
A person of low te acts,
For such a person has cause for action.
A person of high jen (humanity) acts,
Yet such a person has no cause for action;
A person of high i (righteousness) acts,
For such a person has cause for action.
A person of high li (propriety) acts,
Yet finding no response,
Proceeds to bare the arms and throw a rope.
Therefore when Tao is lost (shih), then there is te.
When te is lost, then there is jen (humanity).
When jen is lost, then there is i (righteousness).
When i is lost, then there is li (propriety).
As to li, it is the thin edge of loyalty and faithfullness,
And the beginning of disorder;
As to foreknowledge (ch'ien shih), it is the flowering of Tao,
And the beginning of stupidity (yü).
Thus a great person, abiding in the thick,
Does not dwell in the thin;
Abiding in the kernel,
Does not dwell in the flower.
Therefore such a person leaves that and takes this.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

The superior virtue is not conscious of itself as virtue; Therefore it has virtue. The inferior virtue never lets off virtue; Therefore it has no virtue.
The superior virtue seems inactive, and yet there is nothing that it does not do. The inferior virtue acts and yet in the end leaves things undone.
The superior benevolence acts without a motive. The superior righteousness acts with a motive. The superior ritual acts, but at first no one responds to it; Gradually people raise their arms and follow it.
Therefore when Tao is lost, virtue follows. When virtue is lost, benevolence follows. When benevolence is lost, righteousness follows. When righteousness is lost, ritual follows.
Ritual, therefore, is the attenuation of loyalty and faith and the outset of confusion. Fore-knowledge is the flower of Tao and the beginning of folly.
Therefore the truly great man keeps to the solid and not to the tenuous; Keeps to the fruit and not to the flower. Thus he rejects the latter and takes the former.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
失 // 失 // shī // ① erreur ② accident ③ perdre // Chinese-French
失 // 失 // shī // ① to lose ② to miss ③ to fail // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
無為 // 无为 // wú wéi // ① Wuwei county in Chaohu 巢湖[Chao2 hu2], Anhui // CC-CEDICT
無為 // 无为 // wú wéi // ① the Daoist doctrine of inaction ② let things take their own course ③ laissez-faire // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
仁 // 仁 // rén // ① humanité ② bienveillance ③ amande ④ pépin ⑤ bon ⑥ bienveillant // Chinese-French
仁 // 仁 // rén // ① humane ② kernel // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
義 // 义 // yì // ① justice ② sens ③ juste ④ équitable ⑤ adoptif // Chinese-French
義 // 义 // yì // ① surname Yi ② (Tw) abbr. for 義大利|义大利[Yi4 da4 li4], Italy // CC-CEDICT
義 // 义 // yì // ① justice ② righteousness ③ meaning ④ foster (father etc) ⑤ adopted ⑥ artificial (tooth, limb etc) ⑦ relationship ⑧ friendship // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① rite ② cérémonie ③ semaine ④ cadeau ⑤ présent // Chinese-French
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① surname Li ② abbr. for 禮記|礼记[Li3 ji4], Classic of Rites // CC-CEDICT
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① gift ② rite ③ ceremony ④ CL:份[fen4] ⑤ propriety ⑥ etiquette ⑦ courtesy // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① ne...pas ② sans // Chinese-French
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① surname Mo // CC-CEDICT
莫 // 莫 // mò // ① do not ② there is none who // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
應 // 应 // yīng // ① falloir ② devoir ③ répondre à // Chinese-French
應 // 应 // yīng // ① to agree (to do sth) ② should ③ ought to ④ must ⑤ (legal) shall // CC-CEDICT
應 // 应 // yìng // ① répondre à ② accepter ③ consentir // Chinese-French
應 // 应 // yìng // ① surname Ying // CC-CEDICT
應 // 应 // yìng // ① to answer ② to respond ③ to comply with ④ to deal or cope with // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
攘臂 // 攘臂 // rǎng bì // ① to bare one's arms (in agitation) // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
扔 // 扔 // rēng // ① lancer ② jeter ③ abandonner // Chinese-French
扔 // 扔 // rēng // ① to throw ② to throw away // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
失道 // 失道 // shī dào // ① perdre le chemin ② injuste ③ faute morale // Chinese-French
失道 // 失道 // shī dào // ① to lose the way ② unjust ③ moral failing // CC-CEDICT
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① après ② puis // Chinese-French
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① after that ② then // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
失 // 失 // shī // ① erreur ② accident ③ perdre // Chinese-French
失 // 失 // shī // ① to lose ② to miss ③ to fail // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① après ② puis // Chinese-French
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① after that ② then // CC-CEDICT
仁 // 仁 // rén // ① humanité ② bienveillance ③ amande ④ pépin ⑤ bon ⑥ bienveillant // Chinese-French
仁 // 仁 // rén // ① humane ② kernel // CC-CEDICT
失 // 失 // shī // ① erreur ② accident ③ perdre // Chinese-French
失 // 失 // shī // ① to lose ② to miss ③ to fail // CC-CEDICT
仁 // 仁 // rén // ① humanité ② bienveillance ③ amande ④ pépin ⑤ bon ⑥ bienveillant // Chinese-French
仁 // 仁 // rén // ① humane ② kernel // CC-CEDICT
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① après ② puis // Chinese-French
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① after that ② then // CC-CEDICT
義 // 义 // yì // ① justice ② sens ③ juste ④ équitable ⑤ adoptif // Chinese-French
義 // 义 // yì // ① surname Yi ② (Tw) abbr. for 義大利|义大利[Yi4 da4 li4], Italy // CC-CEDICT
義 // 义 // yì // ① justice ② righteousness ③ meaning ④ foster (father etc) ⑤ adopted ⑥ artificial (tooth, limb etc) ⑦ relationship ⑧ friendship // CC-CEDICT
失 // 失 // shī // ① erreur ② accident ③ perdre // Chinese-French
失 // 失 // shī // ① to lose ② to miss ③ to fail // CC-CEDICT
義 // 义 // yì // ① justice ② sens ③ juste ④ équitable ⑤ adoptif // Chinese-French
義 // 义 // yì // ① surname Yi ② (Tw) abbr. for 義大利|义大利[Yi4 da4 li4], Italy // CC-CEDICT
義 // 义 // yì // ① justice ② righteousness ③ meaning ④ foster (father etc) ⑤ adopted ⑥ artificial (tooth, limb etc) ⑦ relationship ⑧ friendship // CC-CEDICT
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① après ② puis // Chinese-French
而後 // 而后 // ér hòu // ① after that ② then // CC-CEDICT
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① rite ② cérémonie ③ semaine ④ cadeau ⑤ présent // Chinese-French
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① surname Li ② abbr. for 禮記|礼记[Li3 ji4], Classic of Rites // CC-CEDICT
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① gift ② rite ③ ceremony ④ CL:份[fen4] ⑤ propriety ⑥ etiquette ⑦ courtesy // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① rite ② cérémonie ③ semaine ④ cadeau ⑤ présent // Chinese-French
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① surname Li ② abbr. for 禮記|礼记[Li3 ji4], Classic of Rites // CC-CEDICT
禮 // 礼 // lǐ // ① gift ② rite ③ ceremony ④ CL:份[fen4] ⑤ propriety ⑥ etiquette ⑦ courtesy // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
忠信 // 忠信 // zhōng xìn // ① fidèle et honnête ② loyal et sincère // Chinese-French
忠信 // 忠信 // zhōng xìn // ① faithful and honest ② loyal and sincere // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // báo // ① fin ② mince ③ insipide ④ peu accueillant // Chinese-French
薄 // 薄 // báo // ① thin ② cold in manner ③ indifferent ④ weak ⑤ light ⑥ infertile // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // bó // ① faible ② léger ③ chiche ④ mépriser // Chinese-French
薄 // 薄 // bó // ① surname Bo // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // bó // ① meager ② slight ③ weak ④ ungenerous or unkind ⑤ frivolous ⑥ to despise ⑦ to belittle ⑧ to look down on ⑨ to approach or near // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // bò // ① menthe // Chinese-French
薄 // 薄 // bò // ① see 薄荷[bo4 he5] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
亂 // 乱 // luàn // ① désordre, confusion ② anarchie, rébellion // Chinese-French
亂 // 乱 // luàn // ① in confusion or disorder ② in a confused state of mind ③ disorder ④ upheaval ⑤ riot ⑥ illicit sexual relations ⑦ to throw into disorder ⑧ to mix up ⑨ indiscriminate ⑩ random ⑪ arbitrary // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
首 // 首 // shǒu // ① chef ② tête ③ premier ④ (classificateur des poèmes et chansons) // Chinese-French
首 // 首 // shǒu // ① head ② chief ③ first (occasion, thing etc) ④ classifier for poems, songs etc // CC-CEDICT
前 // 前 // qián // ① avant ② devant ③ précédent ④ ancien ⑤ pré- // Chinese-French
前 // 前 // qián // ① front ② forward ③ ahead ④ first ⑤ top (followed by a number) ⑥ future ⑦ ago ⑧ before ⑨ BC (e.g. 前293年) ⑩ former ⑪ formerly // CC-CEDICT
識 // 识 // shí // ① connaître ② connaissance ③ clairvoyance // Chinese-French
識 // 识 // shí // ① to know ② knowledge ③ Taiwan pr. [shi4] // CC-CEDICT
識 // 识 // zhì // ① se souvenir ② inscrire, annales // Chinese-French
識 // 识 // zhì // ① to record ② to write a footnote // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huá // ① Chine ② meilleure partie ③ brillant ④ magnifique ⑤ splendide ⑥ somptueux ⑦ prospère ⑧ florissant // Chinese-French
華 // 华 // huá // ① abbr. for China // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huá // ① magnificent ② splendid ③ flowery // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huā // ① old variant of 花[hua1] ② flower // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huà // ① (nom de famille) ② Mont Hua (Shaanxi) // Chinese-French
華 // 华 // huà // ① Mt Hua 華山|华山 in Shaanxi ② surname Hua // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
愚 // 愚 // yú // ① bête ② idiot ③ tricher ou tromper // Chinese-French
愚 // 愚 // yú // ① to be stupid ② to cheat or deceive ③ me or I (modest) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
始 // 始 // shǐ // ① début ② origine // Chinese-French
始 // 始 // shǐ // ① to begin ② to start ③ then ④ only then // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
大丈夫 // 大丈夫 // dà zhàng fu // ① a manly man ② a man of character // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
厚 // 厚 // hòu // ① épais ② important ③ cordial ④ fort // Chinese-French
厚 // 厚 // hòu // ① thick ② deep or profound ③ kind ④ generous ⑤ rich or strong in flavor ⑥ to favor ⑦ to stress // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // báo // ① fin ② mince ③ insipide ④ peu accueillant // Chinese-French
薄 // 薄 // báo // ① thin ② cold in manner ③ indifferent ④ weak ⑤ light ⑥ infertile // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // bó // ① faible ② léger ③ chiche ④ mépriser // Chinese-French
薄 // 薄 // bó // ① surname Bo // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // bó // ① meager ② slight ③ weak ④ ungenerous or unkind ⑤ frivolous ⑥ to despise ⑦ to belittle ⑧ to look down on ⑨ to approach or near // CC-CEDICT
薄 // 薄 // bò // ① menthe // Chinese-French
薄 // 薄 // bò // ① see 薄荷[bo4 he5] // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chù // ① lieu ② endroit ③ département ④ service // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chù // ① place ② location ③ spot ④ point ⑤ office ⑥ department ⑦ bureau ⑧ respect ⑨ classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point // CC-CEDICT
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① s'entendre (bien ou mal) ② se trouver ③ punir ④ habiter // Chinese-French
處 // 处 // chǔ // ① to reside ② to live ③ to dwell ④ to be in ⑤ to be situated at ⑥ to stay ⑦ to get along with ⑧ to be in a position of ⑨ to deal with ⑩ to discipline ⑪ to punish // CC-CEDICT
其實 // 其实 // qí shí // ① en fait ② en réalité // Chinese-French
其實 // 其实 // qí shí // ① actually ② in fact ③ really // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① résidence ② habitation ③ résider ④ habiter ⑤ se trouver // Chinese-French
居 // 居 // jū // ① surname Ju // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jū // ① to reside ② to be (in a certain position) ③ to store up ④ to be at a standstill ⑤ residence ⑥ house ⑦ restaurant ⑧ classifier for bedrooms // CC-CEDICT
居 // 居 // jī // ① (archaic) sentence-final particle expressing a doubting attitude // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huá // ① Chine ② meilleure partie ③ brillant ④ magnifique ⑤ splendide ⑥ somptueux ⑦ prospère ⑧ florissant // Chinese-French
華 // 华 // huá // ① abbr. for China // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huá // ① magnificent ② splendid ③ flowery // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huā // ① old variant of 花[hua1] ② flower // CC-CEDICT
華 // 华 // huà // ① (nom de famille) ② Mont Hua (Shaanxi) // Chinese-French
華 // 华 // huà // ① Mt Hua 華山|华山 in Shaanxi ② surname Hua // CC-CEDICT
故去 // 故去 // gù qù // ① mourir ② la mort // Chinese-French
故去 // 故去 // gù qù // ① to die ② death // CC-CEDICT
彼 // 彼 // bǐ // ① celui-là ② l'autre // Chinese-French
彼 // 彼 // bǐ // ① that ② those ③ (one) another // CC-CEDICT
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① prendre ② reprendre ③ obtenir ④ adopter ⑤ choisir // Chinese-French
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① to take ② to get ③ to choose ④ to fetch // CC-CEDICT
此 // 此 // cǐ // ① ce ② ici // Chinese-French
此 // 此 // cǐ // ① this ② these // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The virtuous getter does not get,
And is therefore getting something better.
The worst getter does not give what he/she gets
And is therefore getting something worse.
The best getter does nothing for nothing.
The kind giver does something for nothing.
The faithful contractor does something for something.
The ceremony holder does things but is not responded to,
For ceremony means lack of faithfulness
And the start of social disorders.
Predictive knowledge is the turbulence of the Way
And the beginning of folly.
Therefore, the reasonable person
Will stay in the thick center of the Way
Instead of its tumbling thin edge,
And will prefer the solid spot of the Way
Instead of its turbulence.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

A person of superior virtue is not virtuous, and this is why he has virtue.
A person of inferior virtue never loses virtue, and this is why he lacks virtue.
A person of superior virtue takes no conscious action and so acts out of nothing.
A person of inferior virtue takes conscious action and so acts out of something.
When a person of superior benevolence takes action, he acts out of nothing.
When a person of superior righteousness takes action, he acts out of something.
When a person of superior propriety takes action and no one responds, he pushes up his sleeves and leads them to it.
Therefore one resorts to virtue only after losing the Dao, resorts to benevolence only after losing virtue, resorts to righteousness only after losing benevolence, and resorts to propriety only after losing righteousness.
Propriety consists of the superficial aspects of loyalty and trust and is thus the beginning of disorder.
Foresight consists of the flower of the Dao and is thus the origin of duplicity.
This is why the really great man involves himself with its substance and not with its superficial aspects.
He involves himself with its fruit and not with its flower.
Therefore he rejects the one and takes the other.
(Ⅷ)


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