Chapter 41 How to be identical and different.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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41. 1  
When a superior scholar hears about Tao, he tries to follow it.

When a superior scholar hears about Tao, he earnestly exerts his energy to follow it.

When a mediocre scholar hears about Tao, he now keeps it and now loses it.

When a mediocre scholar hears about Tao, he practises asceticism in order to last long. He governs a country by means of the great peace, and so he enjoys it and remains with it. But when he again beholds riches, beauty, splendor and honours, then he has doubts about his feelings, becomes full of desires and will again lose it.

When an inferior scholar hears about Tao, he loudly laughs at it.

An inferior scholar has a great many desires. If he beholds Tao to be weak, he calls it afraid. If he beholds Tao to be simple, he calls it vulgar. Therefore he loudly laughs at it.

If it would not be laughed at, it would not suffice to be Tao.

If it were not ridiculed by inferior scholars, it would not be sufficient to be called Tao.

Therefore one who arranged words has it thus:

建 = to arrange. He arranged the words to get at Tao. This corresponds to the following sentences.

To throw light on Tao is like obscuring it.

A man who throws light on Tao resembles one who obscures it. There is nothing which he denies.

 

To approach Tao is like retiring from it.

To approach Tao and seize it is like retiring and not reaching it.

To equalize Tao is like differentiating it.

夷 = to equalize. A man of great Tao is not different from it like one who compares it to many other things.

Superior Te is like a valley.

A man of superior Te is like a deep valley. He is not ashamed of dirt and lowliness.

Great whiteness is like spotted.

A man of great whiteness is as if he were spotted by dirt. He is not himself resplendent.

Wide Te is like insufficient.

A man widely and grandly walking in Te seems stupid, ignorant and insufficient.

Piled up Te is like stolen.

A man piling up Te looks as if he could be robbed and emptied of them.

Natural simplicity is like inconstant.

A simple man resembles a colour which has faded and shines no more.

A great square is without corners.

A man entirely upright is neither crooked nor strict.

A large vessel is tardily completed.

A very able man resembles [one of] the nine tripods. A sacrificial vessel cannot become quickly completed.

A great note has little sound.

A great note is like rolling thunder. It bides its time, and then it goes off. This symbolizes a man who always saves his breath and talks little.

A great idea is without form.

An entirely ideal man is simple and without appearance.

Tao is hidden and without a name.

Tao is hidden and effects that men are unable to point out its name.

Now as Tao is beneficial, it is liberal and then perfect.

成 = 就 to perfect. This means that Tao well provides for the spirit of man and perfects it.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 上士聞道,勤而行之;中士聞道,若存若亡;下士聞道,大笑之。不笑不足以為道。故建言有之:明道若昧;進道若退;夷道若纇;上德若谷;太白若辱;廣德若不足;建德若偷;質真若渝;大方無隅;大器晚成;大音希聲;大象無形;道隱無名。夫唯道,善貸且成。

《老子河上公章句·同異》: 上士聞道,勤而行之。中士聞道,若存若亡。下士聞道,大笑之。不笑不足以為道。故建言有之:明道若昧,進道若退,夷道若纇。上德若谷,大白若辱,廣德若不足,建德若偷,質真若渝,大方無隅,大器晚成,大音希聲,大象無形,道隱無名。夫惟道,善貸且成。

《郭店·老子乙》: 上士聞道,勤能行於其中。中士聞道,若存若亡。下士聞道,大笑之。弗大笑,不足以為道矣。是以建言有之:明道如悖,遲夷道□□□道若退。上德如谷,大白如辱,廣德如不足,建德如□□真如渝。遲大方亡隅,大器曼成,大音希聲,天象亡形,道□□□□□ Show in context
《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□道,善□□□□。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 上□□道,堇能行之;中士聞道,若存若亡;下士聞道,大笑之。弗笑□□以為道。是以建言有之曰:明道如費,進道如退,夷道如類,上德如浴,大白如辱,廣德如不足,建德如□,質□□□,大方無禺,大器免成,大音希聲,天象無刑,道褒無名。夫唯道,善始且善成。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

上士聞道,勤而行之。上士聞道,自勤苦竭力而行之。中士聞道,若存若亡。中士聞道,治身以長存,治國以太平,欣然而存之,退見財色榮譽,惑於情欲,而復亡之也。下士聞道,大笑之。下士貪狠多欲,見道柔弱,謂之恐懼,見道質樸,謂之鄙陋,故大笑之。不笑不足以為道。不為下士所笑,不足以名為道。故建言有之:建,設也。設言以有道,當如下句。明道若昧,明道之人,若闇昧無所見。進道若退,進取道者,若退不及。夷道若纇。夷,平也。大道之人不自別殊,若多比類也。上德若谷,上德之人若深谷,不恥垢濁也。大白若辱,大潔白之人若汙辱,不自彰顯。廣德若不足,德行廣大之人,若愚頑不足也。建德若偷,建設道德之人,若可偷引使空虛也。質真若渝,質樸之人,若五色有渝淺不明也。大方無隅,大方正之人,無委屈廉隅。大器晚成,大器之人,若九鼎瑚璉,不可卒成也。大音希聲,大音猶雷霆待時而動,喻當愛氣希言也。大象無形,大法象之人,質樸無形容。道隱無名。道潛隱,使人無能指名也。夫惟道,善貸且成。成,就也。言道善稟貸人精氣,且成就之也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

When the highest type of men hear Tao, The diligently practice it. When the average type of men hear Tao, They half believe in it.
When the lowest type of men hear Tao, They laugh heartily at it. If they did not laugh at it, it would not be Tao.
Therefore there is the established saying: The Tao which is bright appears to be dark. The Tao which goes forward appears to fall backward. The Tao which is level appears uneven. Great virtue appears like a valley (hollow). Great purity appears like disgrace. Far-reaching virtue appears as if insufficient.
Solid virtue appears as if unsteady. True substance appears to be changeable. The great square has no corners. The great implement (or talent) is slow to finish (or mature). Great music sounds faint. Great form has no shape.
Tao is hidden and nameless. Yet it is Tao alone that skillfully provides for all and brings them to perfection.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

When a superior person (shan shih) hears Tao,
He diligently practices it.
When a middling person (chung shih) hears Tao,
He hears it, he doesn't hear it.
When the inferior person (hsia shih) hears Tao, he roars.
If Tao were not laughed at,
It would not be Tao.
Therefore, established sayings (chien yen) have it this way:
"The illuminating (ming) Tao appears (jo) dark,
The advancing Tao appears retreating,
The level Tao appears knotty (lei).
High (shan) te appears like a valley,
Great whiteness (po) appears spotted (ju),
Expansive te appears insufficient,
Well-established te appears weak,
The genuine in substance appears hollow.
Great (ta) square has no corners,
Great vessel (ch'i) is late in completion,
Great voice (yin) has hardly (hsi) any sound,
Great image is formless,
Tao is hidden and without name."
Yet it is Tao alone,
That is good in lending help and fulfilling all.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

When the superiour scholar is told of Tao,
He works hard to practise it.
When the middling scholar is told of Tao,
It seems that sometimes he keeps it and sometimes he loses it.
When the inferiour scholar is told of Tao,
He laughs aloud at it.
If it were not laughed at, it would not be sufficient to be Tao.
Therefore the proverb says:
'Tao in enlightenment seems obscure;
Tao in progress seems regressive;
The highest virtue seems like a valley;
The purest white seems discoloured;
The most magnificent virtue seems insufficient;
The solidest virtue seems frail;
The simplest nature seems changable;
The greatest square has no angles;
The largest vessel is never complete;
The loudest sound can never be heard;
The biggest form cannot be visualised.
Tao, while hidden, is nameless.'
Yet it is Tao alone that is good at imparting and completing.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
士 // 士 // shì // ① lettré ② soldat // Chinese-French
士 // 士 // shì // ① surname Shi // CC-CEDICT
士 // 士 // shì // ① member of the senior ministerial class (old) ② scholar (old) ③ bachelor ④ honorific ⑤ soldier ⑥ noncommissioned officer ⑦ specialist worker // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① entendre ② sentir (une odeur) ③ information // Chinese-French
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① surname Wen // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① to hear ② news ③ well-known ④ famous ⑤ reputation ⑥ fame ⑦ to smell ⑧ to sniff at // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
勤 // 勤 // qín // ① fréquemment ② travailleur ③ assidu // Chinese-French
勤 // 勤 // qín // ① diligent ② industrious ③ hardworking ④ frequent ⑤ regular ⑥ constant // CC-CEDICT
懃 // 勤 // qín // ① variant of 勤[qin2] ② industrious ③ solicitous // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xíng // ① marcher ② agir ③ faire ④ pratiquer ⑤ appliquer ⑥ d'accord ⑦ c'est bon ! ⑧ chacun des éléments : l’eau, le feu, le bois, le métal, la terre ⑨ bagages ⑩ quitter la maison ⑪ se marier (pour une fille) ⑫ ballade // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // xíng // ① to walk ② to go ③ to travel ④ a visit ⑤ temporary ⑥ makeshift ⑦ current ⑧ in circulation ⑨ to do ⑩ to perform ⑪ capable ⑫ competent ⑬ effective ⑭ all right ⑮ OK! ⑯ will do ⑰ behavior ⑱ conduct ⑲ Taiwan pr. [xing4] for the behavior-conduct sense // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // háng // ① classe ② sorte ③ rang ④ maison de commerce // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // háng // ① a row ② series ③ age order (of brothers) ④ profession ⑤ professional ⑥ relating to company // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xìng // ① action // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
中士 // 中士 // zhōng shì // ① sergent // Chinese-French
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① entendre ② sentir (une odeur) ③ information // Chinese-French
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① surname Wen // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① to hear ② news ③ well-known ④ famous ⑤ reputation ⑥ fame ⑦ to smell ⑧ to sniff at // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
存 // 存 // cún // ① exister ② subsister ③ conserver ④ mettre en réserve ⑤ déposer ⑥ consigner ⑦ nourrir ⑧ avoir // Chinese-French
存 // 存 // cún // ① to exist ② to deposit ③ to store ④ to keep ⑤ to survive // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
亡 // 亡 // wáng // ① décédé ② défunt ③ fuir ④ se sauver ⑤ mourir ⑥ anéantir ⑦ asservir // Chinese-French
亡 // 亡 // wáng // ① to die ② to lose ③ to be gone ④ to flee ⑤ deceased // CC-CEDICT
亾 // 亡 // wáng // ① old variant of 亡[wang2] // CC-CEDICT
下士 // 下士 // xià shì // ① caporal // Chinese-French
下士 // 下士 // xià shì // ① lowest-ranked noncommissioned officer (e.g. corporal in the army or petty officer, third class in the navy) // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① entendre ② sentir (une odeur) ③ information // Chinese-French
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① surname Wen // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① to hear ② news ③ well-known ④ famous ⑤ reputation ⑥ fame ⑦ to smell ⑧ to sniff at // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
大笑 // 大笑 // dà xiào // ① rire de bon coeur ② rire aux éclats // Chinese-French
大笑 // 大笑 // dà xiào // ① to laugh heartily ② a belly laugh // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
笑 // 笑 // xiào // ① rire ② sourire ③ ridiculiser // Chinese-French
笑 // 笑 // xiào // ① laugh ② smile ③ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
咲 // 笑 // xiào // ① old variant of 笑[xiao4] // CC-CEDICT
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① ne pas valoir ② insuffisant ③ pas assez // Chinese-French
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① insufficient ② lacking ③ deficiency ④ not enough ⑤ inadequate ⑥ not worth ⑦ cannot ⑧ should not // CC-CEDICT
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① croire ② penser ③ s'imaginer // Chinese-French
以為 // 以为 // yǐ wéi // ① to believe ② to think ③ to consider ④ to be under the impression // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
建言 // 建言 // jiàn yán // ① to declare ② to state ③ (strong) suggestion // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
明 // 明 // míng // ① brillant ② clair ③ comprendre ④ vue ⑤ distinct ⑥ net ⑦ ouvert ⑧ public ⑨ explicite ⑩ prompt ⑪ leste ⑫ prochain ⑬ suivant ⑭ ouvertement // Chinese-French
明 // 明 // míng // ① Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) ② surname Ming ③ Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
明 // 明 // míng // ① bright ② opposite: dark 暗[an4] ③ (of meaning) clear ④ to understand ⑤ next ⑥ public or open ⑦ wise ⑧ generic term for a sacrifice to the gods // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
昧 // 昧 // mèi // ① obscur ② sombre // Chinese-French
昧 // 昧 // mèi // ① to conceal ② dark // CC-CEDICT
進道若退 // 进道若退 // jìn dào ruò tuì // ① entering the Way, you seem to coil back (Laozi 老子, the Book of Dao 道德经, Chap. 14) ② progress in the Dao can seem illusory // CC-CEDICT
夷 // 夷 // yí // ① raser ② exterminer ③ sauf ④ étranger // Chinese-French
夷 // 夷 // yí // ① non-Han people, esp. to the East of China ② barbarians ③ to wipe out ④ to exterminate ⑤ to tear down ⑥ to raze // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
纇 // 纇 // lèi // ① faille ② noeud // Chinese-French
纇 // 颣 // lèi // ① flaw ② knot // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shàng // ① monter ② grimper ③ partir pour ④ mettre ⑤ fixer ⑥ appliquer (un remède) ⑦ supérieur ⑧ haut ⑨ premier ⑩ précédent // Chinese-French
上 // 上 // shàng // ① on top ② upon ③ above ④ upper ⑤ previous ⑥ first (of multiple parts) ⑦ to climb ⑧ to get onto ⑨ to go up ⑩ to attend (class or university) // CC-CEDICT
上 // 上 // shǎng // ① see 上聲|上声[shang3 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // gǔ // ① valley // CC-CEDICT
穀 // 谷 // gǔ // ① grain ② corn // CC-CEDICT
谷 // 谷 // yù // ① vallée ② céréales ③ grains ④ millet // Chinese-French
太白 // 太白 // tài bái // ① Taibai // Chinese-French
太白 // 太白 // tài bái // ① Taibai County in Baoji 寶雞|宝鸡[Bao3 ji1], Shaanxi ② Venus // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① insulter ② humilier ③ humiliation ④ honte // Chinese-French
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① disgrace ② dishonor ③ to insult ④ to bring disgrace or humiliation to ⑤ to be indebted to ⑥ self-deprecating ⑦ Taiwan pr. [ru4] // CC-CEDICT
廣德 // 广德 // guǎng dé // ① Guangde county in Xuancheng 宣城[Xuan1 cheng2], Anhui // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① ne pas valoir ② insuffisant ③ pas assez // Chinese-French
不足 // 不足 // bù zú // ① insufficient ② lacking ③ deficiency ④ not enough ⑤ inadequate ⑥ not worth ⑦ cannot ⑧ should not // CC-CEDICT
建德 // 建德 // jiàn dé // ① Jiande county level city in Hangzhou 杭州[Hang2 zhou1], Zhejiang // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
偷 // 偷 // tōu // ① voler ② chiper ③ furtivement ④ en cachette // Chinese-French
偷 // 偷 // tōu // ① to steal ② to pilfer ③ to snatch ④ thief ⑤ stealthily // CC-CEDICT
質 // 质 // zhì // ① qualité ② matière ③ tempérament ④ caractère ⑤ gage ⑥ otage // Chinese-French
質 // 质 // zhì // ① character ② nature ③ quality ④ plain ⑤ to pawn ⑥ pledge ⑦ hostage ⑧ to question ⑨ Taiwan pr. [zhi2] // CC-CEDICT
真 // 真 // zhēn // ① vraiment ② réellement ③ vrai ④ véritable // Chinese-French
真 // 真 // zhēn // ① really ② truly ③ indeed ④ real ⑤ true ⑥ genuine // CC-CEDICT
若 // 若 // ruò // ① si ② comme // Chinese-French
若 // 若 // ruò // ① to seem ② like ③ as ④ if // CC-CEDICT
渝 // 渝 // yú // ① changer // Chinese-French
渝 // 渝 // yú // ① short name for Chongqing 重慶|重庆[Chong2 qing4] ② old name of Jialing river 嘉陵江[Jia1 ling2 jiang1] in Sichuan // CC-CEDICT
大方 // 大方 // dà fāng // ① expert ② scholar ③ mother earth ④ a type of green tea // CC-CEDICT
大方 // 大方 // dà fang // ① généreux ② naturel ③ aisé ④ équilibré ⑤ sans contrainte ⑥ avec aisance ⑦ élégant ⑧ distingué ⑨ chic // Chinese-French
大方 // 大方 // dà fang // ① generous ② magnanimous ③ stylish ④ in good taste ⑤ easy-mannered ⑥ natural and relaxed // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
隅 // 隅 // yú // ① coin ② bord // Chinese-French
隅 // 隅 // yú // ① corner // CC-CEDICT
大器晚成 // 大器晚成 // dà qì wǎn chéng // ① (expression idiomatique) un grand vase advient au soleil couchant ② les grands talents mûrissent lentement ③ Rome ne s'est pas construite en un jour ④ les grands génies se révèlent sur le tard // Chinese-French
大器晚成 // 大器晚成 // dà qì wǎn chéng // ① lit. it takes a long time to make a big pot (idiom) ② fig. a great talent matures slowly ③ in the fullness of time a major figure will develop into a pillar of the state ④ Rome wasn't built in a day // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
音 // 音 // yīn // ① son ② bruit ③ tonalité ④ note (musique) // Chinese-French
音 // 音 // yīn // ① sound ② noise ③ note (of musical scale) ④ tone ⑤ news ⑥ syllable ⑦ reading (phonetic value of a character) // CC-CEDICT
希 // 希 // xī // ① espérer ② désirer ③ rare // Chinese-French
希 // 希 // xī // ① to hope ② to admire ③ variant of 稀[xi1] // CC-CEDICT
聲 // 声 // shēng // ① son ② bruit ③ voix ④ ton // Chinese-French
聲 // 声 // shēng // ① sound ② voice ③ tone ④ noise ⑤ classifier for sounds // CC-CEDICT
大象 // 大象 // dà xiàng // ① éléphant // Chinese-French
大象 // 大象 // dà xiàng // ① elephant ② CL:隻|只[zhi1] // CC-CEDICT
無形 // 无形 // wú xíng // ① incorporéité // Chinese-French
無形 // 无形 // wú xíng // ① incorporeal ② virtual ③ formless ④ invisible (assets) ⑤ intangible // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
隱 // 隐 // yǐn // ① caché ② latent // Chinese-French
隱 // 隐 // yǐn // ① secret ② hidden ③ concealed ④ (prefix) crypto- // CC-CEDICT
隱 // 隐 // yìn // ① to lean upon // CC-CEDICT
無名 // 无名 // wú míng // ① inconnu ② anonyme ③ accidentel // Chinese-French
無名 // 无名 // wú míng // ① nameless ② obscure // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① seulement // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wéi // ① -ism ② only ③ alone // CC-CEDICT
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① consentir // Chinese-French
唯 // 唯 // wěi // ① yes // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
貸 // 贷 // dài // ① prêt ② emprunter ③ prêter // Chinese-French
貸 // 贷 // dài // ① to lend on interest ② to borrow ③ a loan ④ leniency ⑤ to make excuses ⑥ to pardon ⑦ to forgive // CC-CEDICT
且 // 且 // qiě // ① à la fois ② pour le moment ③ longtemps // Chinese-French
且 // 且 // qiě // ① and ② moreover ③ yet ④ for the time being ⑤ to be about to ⑥ both (... and...) // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① réussir ② devenir ③ résultat ④ fruit (d'un travail) ⑤ très bien ⑥ d'accord ⑦ capable // Chinese-French
成 // 成 // chéng // ① surname Cheng // CC-CEDICT
成 // 成 // chéng // ① to succeed ② to finish ③ to complete ④ to accomplish ⑤ to become ⑥ to turn into ⑦ to be all right ⑧ OK! ⑨ one tenth // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Upon hearing the Way,
First-class people stand up and go with it.
Second-class people go around in circles about it.
Third-class people laugh loudly at it,
And if they don't laugh, it won't be the true Way.
Therefore we may say:
He/She who is wise on the Way seems foolish;
He/She who progresses towards the Way seems to retreat;
He/She who walks the Way evenly
Seems to climb a mountain;
Those who receive most from the Way seem totally deprived;
The pure white person seems a soiled disgrace;
The richest person seems the poorest;
The strongest person seems the weakest;
The truest person seems the most false;
The biggest square has no corner;
The loudest sound can not be heard;
And the largest image cannot be seen;
For what the Way gives and achieves best is nameless.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

When the superior man hears the Dao, he diligently practices it.
When the average man hears the Dao, sometimes he retains it, sometimes he forgets it.
When the inferior man hears the Dao, he laughs loudly at it.
If he did not laugh, what he heard would not be worthy of being the Dao.
Therefore, as the established adage has it:
The bright Dao seems dark.
Advancing on the Dao seems retreat.
The smooth Dao seems rough.
Superior Virtue is like a valley.
Great whiteness seems soiled.
Vast virtue seems wanting.
Established virtue seems stealthy.
Simple authenticity seems compromised.
The great square has no corners.
The great vessel is slow to form.
The great note is inaudible.
The great image is formless.
The Dao may be hidden and nameless, but it alone is good at bestowing and completing.
(Ⅷ)


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