Chapter 44 How to set up commandments.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
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(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
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(Ⅷ)


44. 1  
Name or body, which is nearer?

If the name follows, then the body retreats.

Body or wealth, which is more?

If riches are manifold, then they will harm the body.

To win or to lose, what hurts more?

If you strive to win riches, this is hurtful to your doings.

Intense love is surely great waste.

If one loves a beauty with intensity, one wastes spirituality. If one loves wealth with intensity, one gets into misfortune. What one loves, is inferior. What one loses, is important. Therefore this is called great waste.

To hide much is surely a heavy loss

When alive, to hide much in the treasury, when dead, to hide much in the gravemound, this during life brings about the sorrow of being robbed, in death the sorrow of having the mound dug out and the coffin searched.

Who knows contentedness will not be disgraced.

A man who knows contentedness keeps away from advantage, avoids desires and thereby experiences no humiliation done to his person.

Who knows when to stop is not endangered.

Who knows himself to be able to stop, that one will stop. If wealth and profit do not enmesh the body, if sound and colour do not confuse the ears and eyes, then the body is not endangered.

Thereby he is able to last long.

If one is able to know when to stop and how to be content, then luck and gain stay within oneself. If one practises asceticism, the spirits are not troubled. If one governs a country, the people are not bothered. Therefore one is able to last long.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 名與身孰親?身與貨孰多?得與亡孰病?是故甚愛必大費;多藏必厚亡。知足不辱,知止不殆,可以長久

《老子河上公章句·立戒》: 名與身孰親。身與貨孰多。得與亡孰病。甚愛必大費,多藏必厚亡。知足不辱,知止不殆,可以長久

《郭店·老子甲》: 名與身孰親?身與貨孰多?得與亡孰病?甚愛必大費,厚藏必多亡。故知足不辱;知止不殆:可以長久

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 名與身孰親?身與貨孰多?得與亡孰病?甚□□□□□□□□亡。故知足不辱,知止不殆,可以長久

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 名與□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

名與身孰親。名遂則身退也。身與貨孰多。財多則害身也。得與亡孰病。好得利則病於行也。甚愛必大費,甚愛色,費精神。甚愛財,遇禍患。 所愛者少,所亡者多,故言大費。多藏必厚亡。生多藏於府庫,死多藏於丘墓。 生有攻劫之憂,死有掘塚探柩之患。知足不辱,知足之人絕利去欲,不辱於身。知止不殆,知可止,則財利不累於身,聲色不亂於耳目,則身不危殆也。可以長久。人能知止足則福祿在己,治身者,神不勞;治國者,民不擾,故可長久。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Which does one love more, fame or one's own life? Which is more valuable, one's own life or wealth? Which is worse, gain or loss?
Therefore he who has lavish desires will spend extravagantly. He who hoards will lose most heavily.
He who is contented suffers no disgrace. He who knows when to stop is free from danger. Therefore he can long endure.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Your name and your body (shen), which is dearer?
Your body and material goods, which is more abundant?
Gain and loss, which is illness?
Therefore in excessive love one necessarily goes to great expenses,
In hoarding much one necessarily loses heavily.
Knowing contentment (chih tsu) one does not suffer disgrace,
Knowing when to stop one does not become exhausted (tai).
This way one may last long.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Fame or your person, which is nearer to you?
Your person or wealth, which is dearer to you?
Gain or loss, which brings more evil to you?
Over-love of anything will lead to wasteful spending;
Amassed riches will be followd by heavy plundering.
Therefore, he who knows contentment can never be humiliated;
He who knows where to stop can never be perishable;
He will long endure.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
名 // 名 // míng // ① nom ② nomination ③ place ④ réputé ⑤ célèbre // Chinese-French
名 // 名 // míng // ① name ② noun (part of speech) ③ place (e.g. among winners) ④ famous ⑤ classifier for people // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
親 // 亲 // qīn // ① parent ② proche ③ embrasser ④ de sang ⑤ intime ⑥ en personne // Chinese-French
親 // 亲 // qīn // ① parent ② one's own (flesh and blood) ③ relative ④ related ⑤ marriage ⑥ bride ⑦ close ⑧ intimate ⑨ in person ⑩ first-hand ⑪ in favor of ⑫ pro- ⑬ to kiss ⑭ (Internet slang) dear // CC-CEDICT
親 // 亲 // qìng // ① parents-in-law of one's offspring // CC-CEDICT
身 // 身 // shēn // ① corps ② vie ③ soi-même // Chinese-French
身 // 身 // shēn // ① body ② life ③ oneself ④ personally ⑤ one's morality and conduct ⑥ the main part of a structure or body ⑦ pregnant ⑧ classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset ⑨ Kangxi radical 158 // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
貨 // 货 // huò // ① marchandise // Chinese-French
貨 // 货 // huò // ① goods ② money ③ commodity ④ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
多 // 多 // duō // ① beaucoup ② nombreux ③ de plus ④ de trop ⑤ plus de // Chinese-French
多 // 多 // duō // "① many ② much ③ often ④ a lot of ⑤ numerous ⑥ more ⑦ in excess ⑧ how (to what extent) ⑨ multi- ⑩ Taiwan pr. [duo2] when it means ""how""" // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // de // ① (exprime un résultat, une possibilité, un degré ou un aboutissement) // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // de // ① structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // dé // ① acquérir ② gagner ③ être prêt // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // dé // ① to obtain ② to get ③ to gain ④ to catch (a disease) ⑤ proper ⑥ suitable ⑦ proud ⑧ contented ⑨ to allow ⑩ to permit ⑪ ready ⑫ finished // CC-CEDICT
得 // 得 // děi // ① avoir besoin ② nécessiter ③ devoir ④ falloir ⑤ être sûr de // Chinese-French
得 // 得 // děi // ① to have to ② must ③ ought to ④ to need to // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
亡 // 亡 // wáng // ① décédé ② défunt ③ fuir ④ se sauver ⑤ mourir ⑥ anéantir ⑦ asservir // Chinese-French
亡 // 亡 // wáng // ① to die ② to lose ③ to be gone ④ to flee ⑤ deceased // CC-CEDICT
亾 // 亡 // wáng // ① old variant of 亡[wang2] // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
病 // 病 // bìng // ① tomber malade ② maladie ③ défaut ④ faute // Chinese-French
病 // 病 // bìng // ① illness ② CL:場|场[chang2] ③ disease ④ to fall ill ⑤ defect // CC-CEDICT
是故 // 是故 // shì gù // ① therefore ② so ③ consequently // CC-CEDICT
甚 // 什 // shén // ① que ② quoi ③ tout ④ n'importe quel ⑤ quelconque // Chinese-French
甚 // 甚 // shèn // ① très ② extrêmement ③ plus que // Chinese-French
甚 // 甚 // shèn // ① what ② very ③ extremely ④ any // CC-CEDICT
甚 // 甚 // shén // ① variant of 什[shen2] // CC-CEDICT
愛 // 爱 // ài // ① amour ② aimer ③ affection ④ être fan de ⑤ adorer // Chinese-French
愛 // 爱 // ài // ① to love ② to be fond of ③ to like ④ affection ⑤ to be inclined (to do sth) ⑥ to tend to (happen) // CC-CEDICT
必 // 必 // bì // ① nécessairement ② certainement ③ falloir ④ devoir // Chinese-French
必 // 必 // bì // ① certainly ② must ③ will ④ necessarily // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
費 // 费 // fèi // ① coûter ② dépenser ③ consommer ④ frais ⑤ dépenses ⑥ prix // Chinese-French
費 // 费 // fèi // ① surname Fei // CC-CEDICT
費 // 费 // fèi // ① to cost ② to spend ③ fee ④ wasteful ⑤ expenses // CC-CEDICT
多 // 多 // duō // ① beaucoup ② nombreux ③ de plus ④ de trop ⑤ plus de // Chinese-French
多 // 多 // duō // "① many ② much ③ often ④ a lot of ⑤ numerous ⑥ more ⑦ in excess ⑧ how (to what extent) ⑨ multi- ⑩ Taiwan pr. [duo2] when it means ""how""" // CC-CEDICT
藏 // 藏 // cáng // ① cacher ② mettre de côté ③ emmagasiner // Chinese-French
藏 // 藏 // cáng // ① to conceal ② to hide away ③ to harbor ④ to store ⑤ to collect // CC-CEDICT
藏 // 藏 // zàng // ① cachette, dépôt ② écritures bouddhistes ou taoïstes ③ région du Tibet ou Xizang // Chinese-French
藏 // 藏 // zàng // ① Tibet ② Xizang 西藏 // CC-CEDICT
藏 // 藏 // zàng // ① storehouse ② depository ③ Buddhist or Taoist scripture // CC-CEDICT
必 // 必 // bì // ① nécessairement ② certainement ③ falloir ④ devoir // Chinese-French
必 // 必 // bì // ① certainly ② must ③ will ④ necessarily // CC-CEDICT
厚 // 厚 // hòu // ① épais ② important ③ cordial ④ fort // Chinese-French
厚 // 厚 // hòu // ① thick ② deep or profound ③ kind ④ generous ⑤ rich or strong in flavor ⑥ to favor ⑦ to stress // CC-CEDICT
亡 // 亡 // wáng // ① décédé ② défunt ③ fuir ④ se sauver ⑤ mourir ⑥ anéantir ⑦ asservir // Chinese-French
亡 // 亡 // wáng // ① to die ② to lose ③ to be gone ④ to flee ⑤ deceased // CC-CEDICT
亾 // 亡 // wáng // ① old variant of 亡[wang2] // CC-CEDICT
知足 // 知足 // zhī zú // ① se contenter de ② être satisfait // Chinese-French
知足 // 知足 // zhī zú // ① content with one's situation ② to know contentment (hence happiness) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① insulter ② humilier ③ humiliation ④ honte // Chinese-French
辱 // 辱 // rǔ // ① disgrace ② dishonor ③ to insult ④ to bring disgrace or humiliation to ⑤ to be indebted to ⑥ self-deprecating ⑦ Taiwan pr. [ru4] // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
止 // 止 // zhǐ // ① seul ② arrêter ③ cesser ④ jusqu'à // Chinese-French
止 // 止 // zhǐ // ① to stop ② to prohibit ③ until ④ only // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
殆 // 殆 // dài // ① danger ② presque ③ à peu près // Chinese-French
殆 // 殆 // dài // ① dangerous ② perilous ③ to endanger ④ almost ⑤ probably ⑥ only // CC-CEDICT
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① pouvoir ② passable ③ assez bien // Chinese-French
可以 // 可以 // kě yǐ // ① can ② may ③ possible ④ able to ⑤ not bad ⑥ pretty good // CC-CEDICT
長久 // 长久 // cháng jiǔ // ① durable ② permanent ③ longtemps ④ de longue durée // Chinese-French
長久 // 长久 // cháng jiǔ // ① (for a) long time // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Which is more precious, the body or the name?
Which is more important, the body or the goods?
Which is more harmful, gains or losses?
One who cares for reputation pays more.
One who possesses much fears death most.
Therefore,
One who is easily satisfied is not a disgrace.
One who knows where to stop is not stopped in life.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Reputation or one's person, which is dear?
One's person or what he possesses, which is more?
Gain or loss, which is harm?
Thus it is that extreme meanness is sure to result in great expense, and much hoarding is sure to result in heavy loss.
One who knows contentment will not suffer damage to his reputation, and one who knows how to stop will not place himself in danger.
As such, he will last long.
(Ⅷ)


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