Chapter 49 How to trust in Te.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


49. 1  
The saint has no constant mind.

The saint gets with difficulty accustomed to changes and esteems constancy as if he had no mind of his own.

He makes the people’s mind his mind.

What is convenient to the people, on that he relies and follows it.

What is good, that I think good.

What the people think good, the saint therefore also thinks good.

What is not good, that I also think not good.

Though there are also bad things for the saint, he changes them and causes them to become good.

Te is good.

Through the Te of the saint all the people are turned good.

The believable, I believe it.

What all the people believe, the saint therefore believes as well.

The unbelievable, I also believe it.

What the people do not believe, the saint alters so as to make it believable.

Te is belief.

The Te of the saint changes the people and induces them to believe.

The saint lives full of fear within the empire.

The saint within the empire is always frightened and anxious. Though rich and honoured, he dare not be haughty and prodigal.

Because of the empire he obscures his mind.

This means that because of the people within the empire the saint obscures his mind, as if he were stupid and not penetrating.

All the people use their ears and eyes.

注 = 用to use. All the people use their ears and eyes in order to see and to hear the saint.

The saint treats them all as children.

The saint loves the people and thinks of them as of his children. He educates and nourishes them and does not expect thanks from them.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 聖人無常心,以百姓心為心。善者,吾善之;不善者,吾亦善之;德善。信者,吾信之;不信者,吾亦信之;德信。聖人在天下,歙歙為天下渾其心,百姓皆注其耳目,聖人皆孩之。

《老子河上公章句·任德》: 聖人無常心,以百姓心為心。善者吾善之,不善者吾亦善之,德善。信者吾信之,不信者吾亦信之,德信。聖人在天下怵怵,為天下渾其心。百姓皆注其耳目,聖人皆孩之。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □□□□□,以百□之心為□。善者,善之;不善者,亦善□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□信也。□□之在天下,歙歙焉為天下渾心,百姓皆屬耳目焉,聖人皆咳之。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: □人恆無心,以百省之心為心。善□□□□□□□□□□善也。信者,信之;不信者,亦信之;德信也。聖人之在天下也歙歙焉□□□□□□生皆注其□□□□□□□□。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

聖人無常心,聖人重改更,貴因循,若自無心。以百姓心為心。百姓心之所便,聖人因而從之。善者吾善之,百姓為善,聖人因而善之。不善者吾亦善之,百姓雖有不善者,聖人化之使善也。德善。百姓德化,聖人為善信者吾信之,百姓為信,聖人因而信之。不信者吾亦信之,百姓為不信,聖人化之為信者也。德信。百姓德化,聖人以為信。聖人在天下怵怵,聖人在天下怵怵常恐怖,富貴不敢驕奢。為天下渾其心。言聖人為天下百姓混濁其心,若愚闇不通也。百姓皆注其耳目,注,用也。百姓皆用其耳目為聖人視聽也。聖人皆孩之。聖人愛念百姓如嬰孩赤子,長養之而不責望其報。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

The sage has no fixed (personal) ideas. He regards the people's ideas as his own.
I treat those who are good with goodness. And I also treat those who are not good with goodness. Thus goodness is attained.
I am honest to those who are honest, And I am also honest to those who are not honest. Thus honesty is attained.
The sage, in the government of his empire, has no subjective viewpoint. His mind forms a harmonious whole with that of his people. The all lend their eyes and ears, And he treats them all as infants.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

The sage has no set mind (ch'ang hsin),
He takes the mind of the people as his mind.
The good (shan) I am good to them,
The not good I am also good to them.
This is the goodness of nature (te).
The trustworthy (hsin) I trust them,
The not trustworthy I also trust them.
This is the trust of nature (te).
The sage in the world,
Mixes (hun) the minds (hsin) of all.
The people lift up their eyes and ears,
The sage treats them all like children.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

The Sage has no self to call his own.
He makes the self of the people his self.
To the good I act with goodness;
To the bad I also act with godness:
Thus goodness is attained.
To the faithful I act with faith;
To the faithless I also act with faith:
Thus faith is attained.
The Sage lives in the world in concord, and rules ovet the world in simplicity.
Yet what all the people turn their eyes and ears to,
The Sage looks after as a mother does her children.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
無常 // 无常 // wú cháng // ① anitya // Chinese-French
無常 // 无常 // wú cháng // ① variable ② changeable ③ fickle ④ impermanence (Sanskrit: anitya) ⑤ ghost taking away the soul after death ⑥ to pass away ⑦ to die // CC-CEDICT
心 // 心 // xīn // ① coeur ② pensée ③ esprit ④ intention // Chinese-French
心 // 心 // xīn // ① heart ② mind ③ intention ④ center ⑤ core ⑥ CL:顆|颗[ke1],個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
百姓 // 百姓 // bǎi xìng // ① peuple ② les gens du peuple // Chinese-French
百姓 // 百姓 // bǎi xìng // ① common people // CC-CEDICT
心 // 心 // xīn // ① coeur ② pensée ③ esprit ④ intention // Chinese-French
心 // 心 // xīn // ① heart ② mind ③ intention ④ center ⑤ core ⑥ CL:顆|颗[ke1],個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
心 // 心 // xīn // ① coeur ② pensée ③ esprit ④ intention // Chinese-French
心 // 心 // xīn // ① heart ② mind ③ intention ④ center ⑤ core ⑥ CL:顆|颗[ke1],個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① mauvais ② méchant // Chinese-French
不善 // 不善 // bù shàn // ① bad ② ill ③ not good at ④ not to be pooh-poohed ⑤ quite impressive // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① aussi ② également // Chinese-French
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① also // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
信 // 信 // xìn // ① avoir confiance ② croire ③ lettre // Chinese-French
信 // 信 // xìn // ① letter ② mail ③ CL:封[feng1] ④ to trust ⑤ to believe ⑥ to profess faith in ⑦ truthful ⑧ confidence ⑨ trust ⑩ at will ⑪ at random // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
信 // 信 // xìn // ① avoir confiance ② croire ③ lettre // Chinese-French
信 // 信 // xìn // ① letter ② mail ③ CL:封[feng1] ④ to trust ⑤ to believe ⑥ to profess faith in ⑦ truthful ⑧ confidence ⑨ trust ⑩ at will ⑪ at random // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
信 // 信 // xìn // ① avoir confiance ② croire ③ lettre // Chinese-French
信 // 信 // xìn // ① letter ② mail ③ CL:封[feng1] ④ to trust ⑤ to believe ⑥ to profess faith in ⑦ truthful ⑧ confidence ⑨ trust ⑩ at will ⑪ at random // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① aussi ② également // Chinese-French
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① also // CC-CEDICT
信 // 信 // xìn // ① avoir confiance ② croire ③ lettre // Chinese-French
信 // 信 // xìn // ① letter ② mail ③ CL:封[feng1] ④ to trust ⑤ to believe ⑥ to profess faith in ⑦ truthful ⑧ confidence ⑨ trust ⑩ at will ⑪ at random // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
信 // 信 // xìn // ① avoir confiance ② croire ③ lettre // Chinese-French
信 // 信 // xìn // ① letter ② mail ③ CL:封[feng1] ④ to trust ⑤ to believe ⑥ to profess faith in ⑦ truthful ⑧ confidence ⑨ trust ⑩ at will ⑪ at random // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
在 // 在 // zài // ① en train de ② à ③ dans ④ en ⑤ exister ⑥ vivre // Chinese-French
在 // 在 // zài // ① (located) at ② (to be) in ③ to exist ④ in the middle of doing sth ⑤ (indicating an action in progress) // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
歙 // 歙 // shè // ① (nom d'un district dans l'Anhui) // Chinese-French
歙 // 歙 // shè // ① name of a district in Anhui // CC-CEDICT
歙 // 歙 // shè // ① (nom d'un district dans l'Anhui) // Chinese-French
歙 // 歙 // shè // ① name of a district in Anhui // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
渾 // 浑 // hún // ① trouble ② stupide // Chinese-French
渾 // 浑 // hún // ① muddy ② to mix // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
心 // 心 // xīn // ① coeur ② pensée ③ esprit ④ intention // Chinese-French
心 // 心 // xīn // ① heart ② mind ③ intention ④ center ⑤ core ⑥ CL:顆|颗[ke1],個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
百姓 // 百姓 // bǎi xìng // ① peuple ② les gens du peuple // Chinese-French
百姓 // 百姓 // bǎi xìng // ① common people // CC-CEDICT
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① tout ② tous // Chinese-French
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① all ② each and every ③ in all cases // CC-CEDICT
注 // 注 // zhù // ① to inject ② to pour into ③ to concentrate ④ to pay attention ⑤ stake (gambling) ⑥ classifier for sums of money ⑦ variant of 註|注[zhu4] // CC-CEDICT
註 // 注 // zhù // ① note ② commentaire ③ enjeu ④ mise ⑤ verser ⑥ fixer // Chinese-French
註 // 注 // zhù // ① to register ② to annotate ③ note ④ comment // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
耳目 // 耳目 // ěr mù // ① mouchard ② espion // Chinese-French
耳目 // 耳目 // ěr mù // ① eyes and ears ② sb's attention or notice ③ information ④ knowledge ⑤ spies // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① tout ② tous // Chinese-French
皆 // 皆 // jiē // ① all ② each and every ③ in all cases // CC-CEDICT
孩 // 孩 // hái // ① enfant // Chinese-French
孩 // 孩 // hái // ① child // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The best ruler has no personal ideas
And what the people think is what he/she thinks.
He/She is good to people that are good.
He/She is also good to people that are not good.
It is the goodness typical of the Way server.
He/She trusts people that are trustworthy.
He/She also trusts people that are not trustworthy.
It is the trust typical of the Way server.
The best ruler gives each breath of his/her life to the world.
He/She holds to just a simple mind,
But is looked up to and listened to.
He/She takes the whole world to be his/her children.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

The sage has no constant heart/mind [changxin] but takes the heart/mind of the common folk as his heart/mind.
The good I regard as good;
those who are not good I also regard as good.
This is to transform goodness into virtue.
The trustworthy I trust;
those who are not trustworthy I also trust.
This is to transform trust into virtue.
The sage resides among all under Heaven with perfect equanimity and impartiality and for the sake of all under Heaven merges his heart/mind with theirs.
[The common folk all fix their ears and eyes on him,]
And the sage treats them all as his children.
(Ⅷ)


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