Chapter 50 How to esteem life.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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50. 1  
To step out into life means to enter death.

To step out into life means to want to step out of the interior. The spiritual soul is quiet, the animal soul is peaceful. Therefore this is life. To enter death means to want to enter the feelings. The spirit is troubled and full of doubts. Therefore this is death.

The companions of life are thirteen. The companions of death are thirteen.

This means that of categories of life and death there are thirteen of each. They are called the nine openings and the four bars. These mean life. When the eyes do not see wrong, the ears do not hear wrong, the nose does not smell wrong, the mouth does not talk wrong, the tongue does not taste wrong, the hands do not grasp wrong, the feet do not walk wrong, the semen is not wrongly shed, this is the contrary of death.

Of deadly spots in the man striving for life there are also thirteen.

If man strives for life, he sets the thirteen deadly spots of subversion in motion.

Now for what reason?

He asks for what reason he sets the thirteen deadly spots in motion.

By his living the fulness of life.

That he sets the deadly spots in motion happens through his striving for life. Great fulness is opposed to Tao and resists heaven, goes wrong and loses the thread.

For I heard: who well nourishes life,

攝 (lit. to lead) =

when walking on land does not meet rhinoceroses or tigers.

His nature commands him to keep away from hurtful things and not to strive for them.

When going to war he does not avoid the weapons.

He does not like to fight in order to kill men.

The rhinoceros has no place where to insert its horn. The tiger has no place where to thrust in its claws. The weapon has no place where to infix its blade.

As to a person nourishing his life, rhinoceros and tiger have no possibility of wounding him, and weapons have no possibility of transfixing him.

Now for what reason?

He asks why rhinoceros, tiger and weapons are not hurtful to him. Because he has no deadly spots.

Because he does not subvert the thirteen deadly spots. It is said that if the spirits

protect him, these things of course do not dare to harm him.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 出生入死。生之徒,十有三;死之徒,十有三;人之生,動之死地,十有三。夫何故?以其生,生之厚。蓋聞善攝生者,陸行不遇兕虎,入軍不被甲兵;兕無所投其角,虎無所措其爪,兵無所容其刃。夫何故?以其無死地。

《老子河上公章句·貴生》: 出生入死。生之徒十有三,死之徒死十有三,人之生,動之死地十有三。夫何故,以其求生之厚。蓋以聞善攝生者,路行不遇兕虎,入軍不披甲兵,兕無投其角,虎無所措爪,兵無所容其刃。夫何故,以其無死地。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □生□□□□□□有□□□徒,十有三;而民生生,動皆之死地之十有三。夫何故也?以其生生也。蓋□□執生者,陵行不□矢虎,入軍不被甲兵;矢無所投其角,虎無所昔其蚤,兵無所容□□。□何故也?以其無死地焉。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: □生入死。生之□□□□□之徒,十又三;而民生生,僮皆之死地之十有三。□何故也?以其生生。蓋聞善執生者,陵行不辟兕虎,入軍不被兵;革兕無□□□□□□□□其蚤兵□□□□□□□□也?以其無□□□。
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- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

出生入死。出生,謂情欲出五內,魂靜魄定,故生。 入死,謂情欲入於胸臆,精勞神惑,故死。生之徒十有三,死之徒死十有三,言生死之類各有十三,謂九竅四關也。 其生也目不妄視,耳不妄聽,鼻不妄嗅,口不妄言,味,手不妄持,足不妄行,精神不妄施。其死也反是也。人之生,動之死地十有三。人知求生,動作反之十三死也。夫何故,問何故動之死地也。以其求生之厚。所以動之死地者,以其求生活之事太厚,違道忤天,妄行失紀。蓋以聞善攝生者,攝,養也。路行不遇兕虎,自然遠離,害不干也。入軍不披甲兵,不好戰以殺人。兕無投其角,虎無所措爪,兵無所容其刃。養生之人,兕虎無由傷,兵刃無從加之也。夫何故,問兕虎兵甲何故不加害之。以其無死地。以其不犯十三之死地也。言神明營護之,此物不敢害。
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- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Man comes in to life and goes out to death.
Three out of ten are companions of life. Three out of ten are companions of death. And three out of ten in their lives lead from activity to death. And for what reason? Because of man's intensive striving after life.
I have heard that one who is a good preserver of his life will not meet tigers or wild buffaloes, And in fighting will not try to escape from weapons of war.
The wild buffalo cannot butt its horns against him, The tiger cannot fasten its claws in him, And weapons of war cannot thrust their blades into him. And for what reason? Because in him there is no room for death.
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- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

From coming out to life to going back to death:
Those companions (t'u) of life,
They are one-third (shih-yu-san);
Those companions of death,
They are one-third;
Those living but moving toward the place of death,
They are also one-third.
Why?
Because of the intense (hou) life-producing activity.
I have heard that one who knows how to nourish life,
On land meets no tigers or wild buffaloes,
In battle needs to wear no armors or weapons,
A wild buffalo has nowhere to butt its horns,
A tiger has nowhere to sink its claws,
A weapon has nowhere to enter its blade.
Why?
Because such a one has no place of death.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Men go out of life and enter into death.
The parts (proportions) of life are three in ten, the parts of death are also three in ten. Men that from birth move towards the region of death are also three in ten. Why is it so? Because of their redundant effort in seeking to live. But only those who do nothing for the purpose of living are better than those who prize their lives. For I have heard that he who knows well how to conserve life, when travelling on land, does not meet the rhinoceros or the tiger; when going to a battle, he is not attacked by arms and weapons. The rhinoceros can find nowhere to drive his horn; the tiger can find nowhere to put his claws; the weapons can find nowhere to thrust their blades. Why is it so? Because he is far beyond the region of death.
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- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
出生入死 // 出生入死 // chū shēng rù sǐ // ① from the cradle to the grave (idiom) ② to go through fire and water ③ brave ④ willing to risk life and limb // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
徒 // 徒 // tú // ① disciple ② apprenti ③ à pied ④ en vain ⑤ seulement // Chinese-French
徒 // 徒 // tú // ① surname Tu // CC-CEDICT
徒 // 徒 // tú // ① disciple ② apprentice ③ believer ④ on foot ⑤ bare or empty ⑥ to no avail ⑦ only ⑧ prison sentence // CC-CEDICT
十 // 十 // shí // ① dix // Chinese-French
十 // 十 // shí // ① ten ② 10 // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① trois // Chinese-French
三 // 三 // sān // ① surname San // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① three ② 3 // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
徒 // 徒 // tú // ① disciple ② apprenti ③ à pied ④ en vain ⑤ seulement // Chinese-French
徒 // 徒 // tú // ① surname Tu // CC-CEDICT
徒 // 徒 // tú // ① disciple ② apprentice ③ believer ④ on foot ⑤ bare or empty ⑥ to no avail ⑦ only ⑧ prison sentence // CC-CEDICT
十 // 十 // shí // ① dix // Chinese-French
十 // 十 // shí // ① ten ② 10 // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① trois // Chinese-French
三 // 三 // sān // ① surname San // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① three ② 3 // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
動 // 动 // dòng // ① bouger ② se mouvoir ③ toucher à ④ déplacer ⑤ agir ⑥ se mettre en action // Chinese-French
動 // 动 // dòng // ① (of sth) to move ② to set in movement ③ to displace ④ to touch ⑤ to make use of ⑥ to stir (emotions) ⑦ to alter ⑧ abbr. for 動詞|动词[dong4 ci2], verb // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // de // ① (particule placée devant le verbe qui transforme un adjectif en adverbe) ② -ment // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // de // ① -ly ② structural particle: used before a verb or adjective, linking it to preceding modifying adverbial adjunct // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // dì // ① masse ② terre ③ terrain ④ lieu // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // dì // ① earth ② ground ③ field ④ place ⑤ land ⑥ CL:片[pian4] // CC-CEDICT
十 // 十 // shí // ① dix // Chinese-French
十 // 十 // shí // ① ten ② 10 // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① trois // Chinese-French
三 // 三 // sān // ① surname San // CC-CEDICT
三 // 三 // sān // ① three ② 3 // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
何故 // 何故 // hé gù // ① pour quoi faire ? ② Quelle est la raison ? // Chinese-French
何故 // 何故 // hé gù // ① what for? ② what's the reason? // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
厚 // 厚 // hòu // ① épais ② important ③ cordial ④ fort // Chinese-French
厚 // 厚 // hòu // ① thick ② deep or profound ③ kind ④ generous ⑤ rich or strong in flavor ⑥ to favor ⑦ to stress // CC-CEDICT
蓋 // 盖 // gài // ① couvrir ② recouvrir ③ apposer ④ dépasser ⑤ construire ⑥ bâtir ⑦ couvercle // Chinese-French
蓋 // 盖 // gài // ① lid ② top ③ cover ④ canopy ⑤ to cover ⑥ to conceal ⑦ to build // CC-CEDICT
蓋 // 盖 // gě // ① (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
蓋 // 盖 // gě // ① surname Ge // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① entendre ② sentir (une odeur) ③ information // Chinese-French
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① surname Wen // CC-CEDICT
聞 // 闻 // wén // ① to hear ② news ③ well-known ④ famous ⑤ reputation ⑥ fame ⑦ to smell ⑧ to sniff at // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
攝 // 摄 // shè // ① absorber ② photographier // Chinese-French
攝 // 摄 // shè // ① to take in ② to absorb ③ to assimilate ④ to act for ⑤ to take a photo ⑥ photo shoot ⑦ photo ⑧ to conserve (one's health) // CC-CEDICT
生 // 生 // shēng // ① vie ② existence ③ élève ④ cru ⑤ inconnu ⑥ étranger ⑦ accoucher ⑧ naître ⑨ pousser ⑩ vivre // Chinese-French
生 // 生 // shēng // ① to be born ② to give birth ③ life ④ to grow ⑤ raw ⑥ uncooked ⑦ student // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
陸 // 陆 // lù // ① terre ferme // Chinese-French
陸 // 陆 // lù // ① surname Lu // CC-CEDICT
陸 // 陆 // lù // ① shore ② land ③ continent // CC-CEDICT
陸 // 陆 // liù // ① six (forme anti-fraude) // Chinese-French
陸 // 陆 // liù // ① six (banker's anti-fraud numeral) // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xíng // ① marcher ② agir ③ faire ④ pratiquer ⑤ appliquer ⑥ d'accord ⑦ c'est bon ! ⑧ chacun des éléments : l’eau, le feu, le bois, le métal, la terre ⑨ bagages ⑩ quitter la maison ⑪ se marier (pour une fille) ⑫ ballade // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // xíng // ① to walk ② to go ③ to travel ④ a visit ⑤ temporary ⑥ makeshift ⑦ current ⑧ in circulation ⑨ to do ⑩ to perform ⑪ capable ⑫ competent ⑬ effective ⑭ all right ⑮ OK! ⑯ will do ⑰ behavior ⑱ conduct ⑲ Taiwan pr. [xing4] for the behavior-conduct sense // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // háng // ① classe ② sorte ③ rang ④ maison de commerce // Chinese-French
行 // 行 // háng // ① a row ② series ③ age order (of brothers) ④ profession ⑤ professional ⑥ relating to company // CC-CEDICT
行 // 行 // xìng // ① action // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
遇 // 遇 // yù // ① rencontrer ② traiter // Chinese-French
遇 // 遇 // yù // ① surname Yu // CC-CEDICT
遇 // 遇 // yù // ① to meet ② to encounter ③ to treat ④ to receive ⑤ opportunity ⑥ chance // CC-CEDICT
兕 // 兕 // sì // ① rhinocéros // Chinese-French
兕 // 兕 // sì // ① (meaning uncertain) ② rhinoceros (possibly female) or bull // CC-CEDICT
虎 // 虎 // hǔ // ① tigre // Chinese-French
虎 // 虎 // hǔ // ① tiger ② CL:隻|只[zhi1] // CC-CEDICT
入 // 入 // rù // ① entrer ② adhérer ③ entrée ④ revenu // Chinese-French
入 // 入 // rù // ① to enter ② to go into ③ to join ④ to become a member of ⑤ to confirm or agree with ⑥ abbr. for 入聲|入声[ru4 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
軍 // 军 // jūn // ① armée ② troupe // Chinese-French
軍 // 军 // jūn // ① army ② military ③ arms ④ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
被 // 被 // bèi // ① couverture ② couette ③ par ④ (utilisé devant un verbe ou devant un complément d'agent pour exprimer une action passive) // Chinese-French
被 // 被 // bèi // ① quilt ② by ③ (indicates passive-voice clauses) ④ (literary) to cover ⑤ to meet with // CC-CEDICT
甲 // 甲 // jiǎ // ① le premier des 10 Troncs célestes ② le premier ③ le meilleur ④ carapace ⑤ armure // Chinese-French
甲 // 甲 // jiǎ // "① first of the ten Heavenly Stems 十天干[shi2 tian1 gan1] ② (used for an unspecified person or thing) ③ first (in a list, as a party to a contract etc) ④ letter ""A"" or roman ""I"" in list ""A, B, C"", or ""I, II, III"" etc ⑤ armor plating ⑥ shell or carapace ⑦ (of the fingers or toes) nail ⑧ bladed leather or metal armor (old) ⑨ ranking system used in the Imperial examinations (old) ⑩ civil administration unit (old) ⑪ ancient Chinese compass point: 75°" // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
兕 // 兕 // sì // ① rhinocéros // Chinese-French
兕 // 兕 // sì // ① (meaning uncertain) ② rhinoceros (possibly female) or bull // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
投 // 投 // tóu // ① jeter ② lancer ③ se jeter ④ investir // Chinese-French
投 // 投 // tóu // ① to cast ② to send ③ to throw oneself (into the river etc) ④ to seek refuge ⑤ to place oneself into the hands of // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
角 // 角 // jiǎo // ① corne ② angle ③ cornet ④ dixième de yuan ⑤ cap (géographie) ⑥ 148e radical // Chinese-French
角 // 角 // jiǎo // ① angle ② corner ③ horn ④ horn-shaped ⑤ unit of money equal to 0.1 yuan ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
角 // 角 // jué // ① rôle ② acteur ③ querelle // Chinese-French
角 // 角 // jué // ① surname Jue // CC-CEDICT
角 // 角 // jué // ① role (theater) ② to compete ③ ancient three legged wine vessel ④ third note of pentatonic scale // CC-CEDICT
虎 // 虎 // hǔ // ① tigre // Chinese-French
虎 // 虎 // hǔ // ① tiger ② CL:隻|只[zhi1] // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
措 // 措 // cuò // ① arranger ② ménager ③ manier // Chinese-French
措 // 措 // cuò // ① to handle ② to manage ③ to put in order ④ to arrange ⑤ to administer ⑥ to execute ⑦ to take action on ⑧ to plan // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
爪 // 爪 // zhuǎ // ① griffes, serres ② égratigner ③ 87e classif. // Chinese-French
爪 // 爪 // zhuǎ // ① claw // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
容 // 容 // róng // ① expression ② mine ③ aspect ④ contenir ⑤ tolérer ⑥ permettre ⑦ laisser // Chinese-French
容 // 容 // róng // ① surname Rong // CC-CEDICT
容 // 容 // róng // ① to hold ② to contain ③ to allow ④ to tolerate ⑤ appearance ⑥ look ⑦ countenance // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
刃 // 刃 // rèn // ① tranchant ② lame ③ épée ④ couteau // Chinese-French
刃 // 刃 // rèn // ① edge of blade // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
何故 // 何故 // hé gù // ① pour quoi faire ? ② Quelle est la raison ? // Chinese-French
何故 // 何故 // hé gù // ① what for? ② what's the reason? // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① mourir ② à mort ③ extrêmement ④ mort ⑤ rigide // Chinese-French
死 // 死 // sǐ // ① to die ② impassable ③ uncrossable ④ inflexible ⑤ rigid ⑥ extremely ⑦ damned // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // de // ① (particule placée devant le verbe qui transforme un adjectif en adverbe) ② -ment // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // de // ① -ly ② structural particle: used before a verb or adjective, linking it to preceding modifying adverbial adjunct // CC-CEDICT
地 // 地 // dì // ① masse ② terre ③ terrain ④ lieu // Chinese-French
地 // 地 // dì // ① earth ② ground ③ field ④ place ⑤ land ⑥ CL:片[pian4] // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

Life and death co-exist in the same process.
The chance for life is thirty percent.
The chance for death is thirty percent.
The chance for death in the life's area is also thirty percent.
Why?
Because some live too actively for their lives.
It has been said that people good at living
Do not meet with tigers on land,
Or receive hits in battle.
Tigers can have no chance to apply their paws.
Weapons can have no chance to exert their edges.
Why?
Because people good at living have no chance of death.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

We emerge into life, enter into death.
Three out of ten are adherents of life;
three out of ten are adherents of death;
and there are three out of ten whose way of life also leads them to death.
Why is this so?
It is due to placing too much emphasis on life.
For I have heard that one good at preserving life, when traveling by land, does not encounter the wild buffalo and, when entering the army, suffers no wound from weapons.
The wild water buffalo has no way to strike at him with horn, the tiger has no way to strike at him with claw, and weapons of war have no way to use point or edge against him.
Why is this so?
It is due to the fact that he stays free of the land of death.
(Ⅷ)


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