Chapter 57 How to simplify customs.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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57. 1  
By attaining justice one governs a country.

以 = 至to attain. Heaven which wants to rectify the personality of a man allows him to come into possession of a country.

By attaining deceit one uses weapons.

奇 = 詐 to deceive. Heaven, if wanting to deceive a man, allows him to use weapons.

By attaining inactivity one takes the empire.

By inactivity and non-action a man may take the empire and make himself its master.

How do I know that this is so? By this.

This is the presence. Lao-tse says: How do I know the intentions of heaven to be such? By what I see today I know them.

The more prohibitions there are in the empire, the poorer the people are.

By the empire the prince is meant. 忌諱 chi-hui are prohibitions. If the law becomes oppressive, malignity arises. If there are many prohibitions, the subjects become deceitful. They all deceive each other. Therefore they will become poor.

The more sharp tools the people have, the more are state and family thrown into disorder.

The sharp tools are power. When the people have much power, then the eyes of those who see are blinded, the ears of those who hear are confused. Prince and subjects are not attached to each other. Therefore state and family are confused.

The more adroitness and intelligence man has, the more curious things appear.

Man is the prince. Polymathy and adroitness, plastics and pictures, palaces, carvings and multicoloured garments are curious things. The more they appear, the more the subjects turn against the prince. Ornamental gold and carved gems, ornamented silks, variegated colours daily more appear.

The more laws are published, the more robbers are there.

The law is something good. The more beautiful and good things become known, the more the affairs of agriculture are neglected, and hunger and cold penetrate everywhere. Therefore there are many robbers and thieves.

Therefore a saint says: I do nothing, and the people change of themselves.

Therefore a saint speaks as follows: I do not act, and the people change of themselves. A saint says: I cultivate Tao and receive [the commands of] heaven. I do not need to change anything, and the people become perfect of themselves.

I am without activity, and the people become rich of themselves.

I do not call the people to service but let them stay with their business. Therefore everybody becomes rich of himself.

I love quietude, and the people are law-abiding of themselves.

The saint says: If I love quietude, if I neither speak nor act, then all the people will be loyal and law-abiding of themselves.

I am without desires, and the people are simple of themselves.

If I am always without desires, if I do away with externals, then the people will follow me and remain simple and natural.

I am without feelings, and the people are pure.

The saint says: If I practise Tao and sincerity and do away with the six feelings, the people will follow me and be pure

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 以正治國,以奇用兵,以無事取天下。吾何以知其然哉?以此:天下多忌諱,而民彌貧;民多利器,國家滋昏;人多伎巧,奇物滋起;法令滋彰,盜賊多有。故聖人云:我無為,而民自化;我好靜,而民自正;我無事,而民自富;我無欲,而民自樸。

《老子河上公章句·淳風》: 以正治國,以奇用兵,以無事取天下。吾何以知其然哉,以此。天下多忌諱而民彌貧。民多利器,國家滋昏。人多伎巧,奇物滋起。法物滋彰,盜賊多有。故聖人云:我無為而民自化,我好靜而民自正,我無事而民自富,

《郭店·老子甲》: 以正之邦,以奇用兵,以亡事取天下。吾何以知其然也。夫天多忌諱而民彌叛。民多利器而邦滋昏。人多智而奇物滋起。法物滋章盜賊多有。是以聖人之言曰:我無事而民自富。我亡為而民自化。我好靜而民自正。我欲不欲而民自樸。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 以正之邦,以畸用兵,以無事取天下。吾何□□□□也哉?夫天下□□諱而民彌貧;民多利器,而邦家茲昏;人多知,而何物茲□□□□□□,盜賊□□□□□□□□□:我無為也,而民自化;我好靜,而民自正;我無事,民□□□□□□□□□□。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 以正之國,以畸用兵,以無事取天下。吾何以知其然也才?夫天下多忌諱,而民彌貧;民多利器,□□□□昏□□□□□□□□□□物茲章,而盜賊□□。是以□人之言曰:我無為,而民自化;我好靜,而民自正;我無事,而民自富;我欲不欲,而民自樸。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

以正治國,以,至也。天使正身之人,使有國也。以奇用兵,奇,詐也。天使詐偽之人,使用兵也。以無事取天下。以無事無為之人,使取天下為之主。吾何以知其然哉,以此。此,今也。老子言,我何以知天意然哉,以今日所見知。天下多忌諱而民彌貧。天下謂人主也。忌諱者防禁也。今煩則姦生,禁多則下詐,相殆故貧。民多利器,國家滋昏。利器者,權也。 民多權則視者眩於目,聽者惑於耳,上下不親,故國家昏亂。人多伎巧,奇物滋起。人謂人君、百里諸侯也。多技巧,謂刻畫宮觀,雕琢章服,奇物滋起,下則化上,飾金鏤玉,文繡彩色日以滋甚。法物滋彰,盜賊多有。法物,好物也。珍好之物滋生彰著,則農事廢, 飢寒並至,而盜賊多有也。故聖人云:謂下事也。我無為而民自化,聖人言:我修道承天,無所改作,而民自化成也。我好靜而民自正,聖人言:我好靜,不言不教,而民自忠正也。我無事而民自富,我無徭役徵召之事,民安其業故皆自富也。我無欲而民自朴。我常無欲,去華文,微服飾,民則隨我為質樸也。 聖人言:我修道守真,絕去六情,民自隨我而清也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

Govern the state with correctness. Operate the army with surprise tactics. Administer the empire by engaging in no activity. How do I know that this should be so? Through this:
The more taboos and prohibitions there are in the world, The poorer the people will be. The more sharp weapons the people have, The more troubled the state will be.
The more cunning and skill a man possesses, The more vicious things will appear. The more laws and orders are made prominent, The more thieves and robbers there will be.
Therefore the sage says: I take no action and the people of themselves are transformed. I love tranquillity and the people of themselves become correct.
I engage in no activity and the people of themselves become prosperous. I have no desires and the people of themselves become simple.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Govern a state by (i) the normal (cheng);
Conduct warfare as (i) the abnormal (ch'i);
Take the empire when (i) there is no business.
How do I know such should be the case?
By the following:
In an empire with many prohibitions,
People are often poor;
When people have many sharp weapons,
The state is in great darkness (tzu hun);
When persons abound in ingenuity (ch'iao),
Abnormal (ch'i) objects multiply (tzu ch'i);
When laws are abundantly promulgated (tzu chang),
There are many thieves and brigands.
Therefore the sage says:
I do not act (wei),
Hence the people transform by themselves (tzu-hua);
I love tranquillity (ching),
Hence the people are normal by themselves (tzu-cheng);
I have no business,
Hence the people grow rich by themselves;
I have no desire,
Hence the people are like the uncarved wood by themselves (tzu-p'u).
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

Albeit one governs the country by rectitude,
And carries on wars by strategems,
Yet one must rule the empire by meddling with no business.
The empire can always be ruled by meddling with no business.
Otherwise, it can never be done.
How do I know this is so?
By this:
The more restrictions and avoidances are in the empire,
The poorer become the people;
The more sharp implements the people keep,
The more confusions are in the country;
The more arts and crafts men have,
The more are fantastic things produced;
The more laws and regulations are given,
The more robbers and thieves there are.
Therefore the Sage says;
Inasmuch as I betake myself to non-action, the people of themselves become developed.
Inasmuch as I love quietude, the people of themselves become righteous.
Inasmuch as I make no fuss, the people of themselves become wealthy.
Inasmuch as I am free from desire, the people of themselves remain simple.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① droit ② positif ③ correct ④ justement ⑤ précisément // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① straight ② upright ③ proper ④ main ⑤ principal ⑥ to correct ⑦ to rectify ⑧ exactly ⑨ just (at that time) ⑩ right (in that place) ⑪ (math.) positive // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① (calendrier) nouveau // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① first month of the lunar year // CC-CEDICT
治國 // 治国 // zhì guó // ① régner sur un pays // Chinese-French
治國 // 治国 // zhì guó // ① to rule a country // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
奇 // 奇 // qí // ① extraordinaire, merveilleux ② rare // Chinese-French
奇 // 奇 // qí // ① strange ② odd ③ weird ④ wonderful ⑤ surprisingly ⑥ unusually // CC-CEDICT
奇 // 奇 // jī // ① impair ② seul ③ reste // Chinese-French
奇 // 奇 // jī // ① odd (number) // CC-CEDICT
用 // 用 // yòng // ① utiliser ② employer ③ avoir à faire ceci ou cela ④ manger ou boire ⑤ frais ou dépenses ⑥ utilité ⑦ c'est pourquoi ⑧ donc ⑨ par conséquent // Chinese-French
用 // 用 // yòng // ① to use ② to employ ③ to have to ④ to eat or drink ⑤ expense or outlay ⑥ usefulness ⑦ hence ⑧ therefore // CC-CEDICT
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldat ② arme ③ armée ④ militaire ⑤ guerre ⑥ stratégie // Chinese-French
兵 // 兵 // bīng // ① soldiers ② a force ③ an army ④ weapons ⑤ arms ⑥ military ⑦ warlike ⑧ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
事 // 事 // shì // ① être occupé ② être engagé dans ③ affaire ④ chose ⑤ accident ⑥ trouble ⑦ travail ⑧ responsabilité ⑨ implication ⑩ empêtrement // Chinese-French
事 // 事 // shì // ① matter ② thing ③ item ④ work ⑤ affair ⑥ CL:件[jian4],樁|桩[zhuang1],回[hui2] // CC-CEDICT
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① prendre ② reprendre ③ obtenir ④ adopter ⑤ choisir // Chinese-French
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① to take ② to get ③ to choose ④ to fetch // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① je ② mon // Chinese-French
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① surname Wu // CC-CEDICT
吾 // 吾 // wú // ① I ② my (old) // CC-CEDICT
何以 // 何以 // hé yǐ // ① comment ② pourquoi ③ pour quelle raison // Chinese-French
何以 // 何以 // hé yǐ // ① whence // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
然 // 然 // rán // ① mais ② cependant ③ juste ④ correct // Chinese-French
然 // 然 // rán // ① correct ② right ③ so ④ thus ⑤ like this ⑥ -ly // CC-CEDICT
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (particule exclamative ou interrogative) // Chinese-French
哉 // 哉 // zāi // ① (exclamatory or interrogative particle) // CC-CEDICT
以此 // 以此 // yǐ cǐ // ① avec cela ② de ce fait ③ ainsi ④ à cause de cela // Chinese-French
以此 // 以此 // yǐ cǐ // ① with this ② thereby ③ thus ④ because of this // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
多 // 多 // duō // ① beaucoup ② nombreux ③ de plus ④ de trop ⑤ plus de // Chinese-French
多 // 多 // duō // "① many ② much ③ often ④ a lot of ⑤ numerous ⑥ more ⑦ in excess ⑧ how (to what extent) ⑨ multi- ⑩ Taiwan pr. [duo2] when it means ""how""" // CC-CEDICT
忌諱 // 忌讳 // jì huì // ① tabou // Chinese-French
忌諱 // 忌讳 // jì huì // ① taboo ② to avoid as taboo ③ to abstain from // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
彌 // 弥 // mí // ① full ② to fill ③ completely ④ more // CC-CEDICT
貧 // 贫 // pín // ① pauvre ② bavard ③ ennuyeux // Chinese-French
貧 // 贫 // pín // ① poor ② inadequate ③ deficient ④ garrulous // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
多利 // 多利 // duō lì // ① Dolly (brebis) // Chinese-French
多利 // 多利 // duō lì // ① Dolly (1996-2003), female sheep, first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell // CC-CEDICT
器 // 器 // qì // ① ustensile ② appareil ③ objet ④ organe ⑤ capacité ⑥ talent // Chinese-French
器 // 器 // qì // ① device ② tool ③ utensil ④ CL:臺|台[tai2] // CC-CEDICT
國家 // 国家 // guó jiā // ① pays // Chinese-French
國家 // 国家 // guó jiā // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
滋 // 滋 // zī // ① croître ② nourrir ③ causer ④ faire naître // Chinese-French
滋 // 滋 // zī // ① to grow ② to nourish ③ to increase ④ to cause ⑤ juice ⑥ taste ⑦ (dialect) to spout ⑧ to spurt // CC-CEDICT
昏 // 昏 // hūn // ① perdre connaissance ② s'évanouir ③ sombre ④ obscur ⑤ troublé // Chinese-French
昏 // 昏 // hūn // ① muddle-headed ② twilight ③ to faint ④ to lose consciousness // CC-CEDICT
昬 // 昏 // hūn // ① old variant of 昏[hun1] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
多 // 多 // duō // ① beaucoup ② nombreux ③ de plus ④ de trop ⑤ plus de // Chinese-French
多 // 多 // duō // "① many ② much ③ often ④ a lot of ⑤ numerous ⑥ more ⑦ in excess ⑧ how (to what extent) ⑨ multi- ⑩ Taiwan pr. [duo2] when it means ""how""" // CC-CEDICT
伎 // 伎 // jì // ① talent ② habile // Chinese-French
伎 // 伎 // jì // ① craft // CC-CEDICT
巧 // 巧 // qiǎo // ① habile ② par hasard // Chinese-French
巧 // 巧 // qiǎo // ① opportunely ② coincidentally ③ as it happens ④ skillful ⑤ timely // CC-CEDICT
奇 // 奇 // qí // ① extraordinaire, merveilleux ② rare // Chinese-French
奇 // 奇 // qí // ① strange ② odd ③ weird ④ wonderful ⑤ surprisingly ⑥ unusually // CC-CEDICT
奇 // 奇 // jī // ① impair ② seul ③ reste // Chinese-French
奇 // 奇 // jī // ① odd (number) // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
滋 // 滋 // zī // ① croître ② nourrir ③ causer ④ faire naître // Chinese-French
滋 // 滋 // zī // ① to grow ② to nourish ③ to increase ④ to cause ⑤ juice ⑥ taste ⑦ (dialect) to spout ⑧ to spurt // CC-CEDICT
起 // 起 // qǐ // ① augmenter ② soulever ③ se lever // Chinese-French
起 // 起 // qǐ // ① to rise ② to raise ③ to get up ④ to set out ⑤ to start ⑥ to appear ⑦ to launch ⑧ to initiate (action) ⑨ to draft ⑩ to establish ⑪ to get (from a depot or counter) ⑫ verb suffix, to start ⑬ starting from (a time, place, price etc) ⑭ classifier for occurrences or unpredictable events: case, instance ⑮ classifier for groups: batch, group // CC-CEDICT
法令 // 法令 // fǎ lìng // ① loi et décret // Chinese-French
法令 // 法令 // fǎ lìng // ① decree ② ordinance // CC-CEDICT
滋 // 滋 // zī // ① croître ② nourrir ③ causer ④ faire naître // Chinese-French
滋 // 滋 // zī // ① to grow ② to nourish ③ to increase ④ to cause ⑤ juice ⑥ taste ⑦ (dialect) to spout ⑧ to spurt // CC-CEDICT
彰 // 彰 // zhāng // ① clair ② évident // Chinese-French
彰 // 彰 // zhāng // ① clear ② conspicuous ③ manifest // CC-CEDICT
盜賊 // 盗贼 // dào zéi // ① bandit ② brigand // Chinese-French
盜賊 // 盗贼 // dào zéi // ① robber // CC-CEDICT
多 // 多 // duō // ① beaucoup ② nombreux ③ de plus ④ de trop ⑤ plus de // Chinese-French
多 // 多 // duō // "① many ② much ③ often ④ a lot of ⑤ numerous ⑥ more ⑦ in excess ⑧ how (to what extent) ⑨ multi- ⑩ Taiwan pr. [duo2] when it means ""how""" // CC-CEDICT
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① avoir ② posséder ③ il y a ④ exister // Chinese-French
有 // 有 // yǒu // ① to have ② there is ③ there are ④ to exist ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
云 // 云 // yún // ① (classical) to say // CC-CEDICT
雲 // 云 // yún // ① nuage ② dire ③ parler ④ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
雲 // 云 // yún // ① surname Yun ② abbr. for Yunnan Province 雲南省|云南省[Yun2 nan2 Sheng3] // CC-CEDICT
雲 // 云 // yún // ① cloud ② CL:朵[duo3] // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
無為 // 无为 // wú wéi // ① Wuwei county in Chaohu 巢湖[Chao2 hu2], Anhui // CC-CEDICT
無為 // 无为 // wú wéi // ① the Daoist doctrine of inaction ② let things take their own course ③ laissez-faire // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
自 // 自 // zì // ① depuis ② à partir de ③ soi-même ④ naturellement // Chinese-French
自 // 自 // zì // ① self ② oneself ③ from ④ since ⑤ naturally ⑥ surely // CC-CEDICT
化 // 化 // huà // ① changer ② transformer ③ fondre ④ digérer ⑤ se transformer en imitant un modèle ⑥ éduquer ⑦ transformer les moeurs ⑧ convertir ⑨ (suffixe) -fier ⑩ -iser // Chinese-French
化 // 化 // huà // ① to make into ② to change into ③ -ization ④ to ... -ize ⑤ to transform ⑥ abbr. for 化學|化学[hua4 xue2] // CC-CEDICT
化 // 化 // huā // ① variant of 花[hua1] // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
好 // 好 // hǎo // ① se porter bien ② aller bien ③ être guéri // Chinese-French
好 // 好 // hǎo // ① good ② well ③ proper ④ good to ⑤ easy to ⑥ very ⑦ so ⑧ (suffix indicating completion or readiness) ⑨ (of two people) close ⑩ on intimate terms // CC-CEDICT
好 // 好 // hào // ① avoir une inclination pour // Chinese-French
好 // 好 // hào // ① to be fond of ② to have a tendency to ③ to be prone to // CC-CEDICT
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① calme ② silencieux // Chinese-French
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① still ② calm ③ quiet ④ not moving // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
自 // 自 // zì // ① depuis ② à partir de ③ soi-même ④ naturellement // Chinese-French
自 // 自 // zì // ① self ② oneself ③ from ④ since ⑤ naturally ⑥ surely // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① droit ② positif ③ correct ④ justement ⑤ précisément // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① straight ② upright ③ proper ④ main ⑤ principal ⑥ to correct ⑦ to rectify ⑧ exactly ⑨ just (at that time) ⑩ right (in that place) ⑪ (math.) positive // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① (calendrier) nouveau // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① first month of the lunar year // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
事 // 事 // shì // ① être occupé ② être engagé dans ③ affaire ④ chose ⑤ accident ⑥ trouble ⑦ travail ⑧ responsabilité ⑨ implication ⑩ empêtrement // Chinese-French
事 // 事 // shì // ① matter ② thing ③ item ④ work ⑤ affair ⑥ CL:件[jian4],樁|桩[zhuang1],回[hui2] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
自 // 自 // zì // ① depuis ② à partir de ③ soi-même ④ naturellement // Chinese-French
自 // 自 // zì // ① self ② oneself ③ from ④ since ⑤ naturally ⑥ surely // CC-CEDICT
富 // 富 // fù // ① riche ② abondant // Chinese-French
富 // 富 // fù // ① surname Fu // CC-CEDICT
富 // 富 // fù // ① rich ② abundant ③ wealthy // CC-CEDICT
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① je ② moi // Chinese-French
我 // 我 // wǒ // ① I ② me ③ my // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
自 // 自 // zì // ① depuis ② à partir de ③ soi-même ④ naturellement // Chinese-French
自 // 自 // zì // ① self ② oneself ③ from ④ since ⑤ naturally ⑥ surely // CC-CEDICT
樸 // 朴 // pǔ // ① simple // Chinese-French
樸 // 朴 // pǔ // ① plain and simple ② Taiwan pr. [pu2] // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

A nation should be governed with simplicity.
A war should be directed with sophistication.
The world should be won without any action.
Why should I think that?
Here are the reasons:
The more prohibitions there are,
The poorer people are;
The more weapons there are,
The more confused the social order is;
The more skills and tricks there are,
The more confusing machines are invented;
The more laws there are,
The more thieves there can appear.
That is why the wise would say:
"I stay idle, and the world will be naturally changed;
I stay quiet, and the world will be naturally restrained;
I do nothing, and the world will be naturally provided;
I desire nothing, and the world will be naturally simplified."
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

If one governs the state with governance, he will use the military with perversity.
It is by tending to matters without conscious purpose that one takes all under Heaven as his charge.
How do I know that this is so?
It is by this:
The more all under Heaven are beset with taboos and prohibitions, the poorer the common folk grow.
The more the common folk are beset with sharp instruments, the more muddled the state becomes.
The more people have skill and cleverness, the more often perverse [ji] things will happen.
The more laws and ordinances are displayed, the more thieves and robbers there will be.
Thus the sage says:
I engage in no conscious effort, and the common folk undergo moral transformation spontaneously.
I love quietude, and the common folk govern themselves.
I tend to matters without conscious purpose, and the common folk enrich themselves.
I am utterly free of desire, and the common folk achieve pristine simplicity by themselves.
(Ⅷ)


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