Chapter 58 How to obey to changes.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


58. 1  
When the government is very dull,

Whenever a government is broad-minded, it seems to be dull and unenlightened,

the people are very simple.

Then the people are simple, have wealth in full and agree well with each other.

When the government is very observant,

Where the government is sharp and quick, speech is discerned within the mouth and hearing within the ear.

then the people are quite broken down.

As the people are unable to maintain their living, they are completely broken down. Therefore they become daily more emaciated.

Misfortune, Oh! is that upon which happiness leans.

倚 = 因 to lean upon. Now when fortune leans upon misfortune, then it originates. When man is hit by misfortune, he is able to repent of his mistakes and to reproach himself, to cultivate goodness and to walk in Tao. Then misfortune flees and happiness approaches.

Happiness, Oh! is that wherein misfortune hides itself.

Misfortune secretly hides within happiness. When man possesses happiness, then he becomes haughty and unbridled. Then happiness flees and misfortune approaches.

Who knows their limits?

As happiness and misfortune generate each other, who is able to know the time when they reach their limits?

Their injustice?

無 = 不 not. This means: When a prince does not justly deal with his person, then he will be without a country.

Justice becomes hypocrisy.

奇 = 詐 hypocrisy. When a prince is not just, the subjects, though they may be just, are in turn changed into hypocrites by the prince.

What is good in turn becomes evil.

All the good people turn against the prince and think him detrimental.

The confusion of the people in such days is certainly of long standing.

This means: When the prince is bewildered, he is sure to lose his right-mindedness. This time will certainly last long.

Therefore the saint is straightforward and not hurtful,

The saint’s behaviour is upright; thereby he wants to lead the subjects. Therefore he does not hurt the people.

incorrupt and not injurious,

The manners of the saint are incorrupt and pure. Thereby he wants to improve the people, not to injure men. Now this is not the case. Even through justice one hurts men.

Upright and not extending.

肆 = 申to extend. Though the saint is upright, he nevertheless bends his self, follows men and does not display himself.

Splendid and not shining.

Though the saint alone sees the light, he always seems obscured and not shining.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 其政悶悶,其民淳淳;其政察察,其民缺缺。禍兮福之所倚,福兮禍之所伏。孰知其極?其無正。正復為奇,善復為妖。人之迷,其日固久。是以聖人方而不割,廉而不劌,直而不肆,光而不燿。

《老子河上公章句·順化》: 其政悶悶,其民醇醇,其政察察,其民缺缺。禍兮福所倚,福兮禍所伏。孰知其極,其無正,正復為奇,善復為訞。人之迷,其日固久。是以聖人方而不割,廉而不害,直而不肆,光而不曜。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: □□□□□□□□其正察察,其邦缺缺。禍福之所倚,福禍之所伏。□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 其正閔閔,其民屯屯,其正察察,其□□□。福,□之所伏;孰知其極?□無正也。正□□□,善復為□。□之悉也,其日固久矣。是以方而不割,兼而不刺,直而不紲,光而不眺。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

其政悶悶,其政教寬大,悶悶昧昧,似若不明也。其民醇醇,政教寬大,故民醇醇富厚,相親睦也。其政察察,其政教急疾,言決於口,聽決於耳也。其民缺缺。政教急疾。民不聊生。故缺缺日以踈薄。禍兮福所倚,倚,因也。夫福因禍而生,人遭禍而能悔過責己, 修道行善,則禍去福來。福兮禍所伏。禍伏匿於福中,人得福而為驕恣,則福去禍來。孰知其極,禍福更相生,誰能知其窮極時。其無正,無,不也。謂人君不正其身,其無國也。正復為奇,奇,詐也。人君不正,下雖正,復化上為詐也。善復為訞。善人皆復化上為訞祥也。人之迷,其日固久。言人君迷惑失正以來,其日已固久。是以聖人方而不割,聖人行方正者,欲以率下,不以割截人也。廉而不害,聖人廉清,欲以化民,不以傷害人也。 今則不然,正己以害人也。直而不肆,肆,申也。聖人雖直,曲己從人,不自申也。光而不曜。聖人雖有獨見之明,當如闇昧,不以曜亂人也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

When the government is non-discriminative and dull, The people are contented and generous. When the government is searching and discriminative, The people are disappointed and contentious.
Calamity is that upon which happiness depends; Happiness is that in which calamity is latent.
Who knows when the limit will be reached? Is there no correctness (used to govern the world)? Then the correct again becomes the perverse. And the good again will become evil. The people have been deluded for a long time.
Therefore the sage is as pointed as a square but does not pierce. He is as acute as a knife but does not cut. He is as straight as an unbent line but does not extend. He is as bright as light but does not dazzle.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

When the government (cheng) is dull,
Its people are wholesome;
When the government is efficient (ch'a),
Its people are deficient (ch'üeh).
Calamities (huo) are what blessings depend on,
In blessings are latent calamities (huo).
Who knows where is the turning point (chi)?
Because there is no longer the normal (cheng),
The normal reverts and appears as the strange (ch'i),
The good reverts and appears as the uncanny.
Rulers (jen) have lost their way,
For a long stretch of days.
Therefore the sage is square but not cutting (ko),
Sharp but not injurious,
Straight but not overreaching,
Bright (kuang) but not dazzling.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

When the government is blunt and inactive the people will be happy and prosperous;
When the government is discriminative, the people will be dissatisfied and restless.
It is upon misery that happiness rests;
It is under happiness that misery lies.
Who then can know the supremacy (good government)?
Only when the government does no rectifying.
Otherwise the rectitude will again become stratagem,
And good beome evil.
Men have been ignorant of this, since long ago.
Therefore the Sage is square but does not cut others;
He is angled but does not chip others;
He is straight but does not stretch others;
His is bright but does not dazzle others.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
政 // 政 // zhèng // ① politique ② principes ③ gouvernement ④ administration // Chinese-French
政 // 政 // zhèng // ① political ② politics ③ government // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① mélancolique // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① bored ② depressed ③ melancholy ④ sealed ⑤ airtight ⑥ tightly closed // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① étouffant ② fermer ③ étancher ④ ennuyeux ⑤ triste ⑥ déprimé ⑦ morose ⑧ étouffant ⑨ mal aéré ⑩ lourd // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① stuffy ② shut indoors ③ to smother ④ to cover tightly // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① mélancolique // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mèn // ① bored ② depressed ③ melancholy ④ sealed ⑤ airtight ⑥ tightly closed // CC-CEDICT
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① étouffant ② fermer ③ étancher ④ ennuyeux ⑤ triste ⑥ déprimé ⑦ morose ⑧ étouffant ⑨ mal aéré ⑩ lourd // Chinese-French
悶 // 闷 // mēn // ① stuffy ② shut indoors ③ to smother ④ to cover tightly // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
淳 // 淳 // chún // ① sincère ② honnête // Chinese-French
淳 // 淳 // chún // ① genuine ② pure ③ honest // CC-CEDICT
湻 // 淳 // chún // ① old variant of 淳[chun2] // CC-CEDICT
淳 // 淳 // chún // ① sincère ② honnête // Chinese-French
淳 // 淳 // chún // ① genuine ② pure ③ honest // CC-CEDICT
湻 // 淳 // chún // ① old variant of 淳[chun2] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
政 // 政 // zhèng // ① politique ② principes ③ gouvernement ④ administration // Chinese-French
政 // 政 // zhèng // ① political ② politics ③ government // CC-CEDICT
察察 // 察察 // chá chá // ① clean ② spotless // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
缺 // 缺 // quē // ① incomplet ② insuffisance ③ manque ④ place vacante ⑤ manquer de // Chinese-French
缺 // 缺 // quē // ① deficiency ② lack ③ scarce ④ vacant post ⑤ to run short of // CC-CEDICT
缺 // 缺 // quē // ① incomplet ② insuffisance ③ manque ④ place vacante ⑤ manquer de // Chinese-French
缺 // 缺 // quē // ① deficiency ② lack ③ scarce ④ vacant post ⑤ to run short of // CC-CEDICT
禍 // 祸 // huò // ① causer du malheur à ② malheur ③ désastre // Chinese-French
禍 // 祸 // huò // ① disaster ② misfortune ③ calamity // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
福 // 福 // fú // ① bonheur ② bonne fortune // Chinese-French
福 // 福 // fú // ① surname Fu ② abbr. for Fujian province 福建省[Fu2 jian4 sheng3] // CC-CEDICT
福 // 福 // fú // ① good fortune ② happiness ③ luck // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
倚 // 倚 // yǐ // ① s'appuyer sur ② compter sur ③ profiter de // Chinese-French
倚 // 倚 // yǐ // ① to lean on ② to rely upon // CC-CEDICT
福 // 福 // fú // ① bonheur ② bonne fortune // Chinese-French
福 // 福 // fú // ① surname Fu ② abbr. for Fujian province 福建省[Fu2 jian4 sheng3] // CC-CEDICT
福 // 福 // fú // ① good fortune ② happiness ③ luck // CC-CEDICT
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (interjection utilisée en poésie indiquant l'émerveillement) ② Oh! // Chinese-French
兮 // 兮 // xī // ① (particle in old Chinese similar to 啊) // CC-CEDICT
禍 // 祸 // huò // ① causer du malheur à ② malheur ③ désastre // Chinese-French
禍 // 祸 // huò // ① disaster ② misfortune ③ calamity // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① place ② endroit ③ institut ④ office // Chinese-French
所 // 所 // suǒ // ① actually ② place ③ classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions etc ④ that which ⑤ particle introducing a relative clause or passive ⑥ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
伏 // 伏 // fú // ① se pencher ② s'incliner ③ se baisser ④ se cacher ⑤ avouer ⑥ canicule ⑦ volt // Chinese-French
伏 // 伏 // fú // ① surname Fu // CC-CEDICT
伏 // 伏 // fú // ① to lean over ② to fall (go down) ③ to hide (in ambush) ④ to conceal oneself ⑤ to lie low ⑥ hottest days of summer ⑦ to submit ⑧ to concede defeat ⑨ to overcome ⑩ to subdue ⑪ volt // CC-CEDICT
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① qui ② que // Chinese-French
孰 // 孰 // shú // ① who ② which ③ what // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
極 // 极 // jí // ① sommet ② extrémité ③ pôle ④ extrêmement // Chinese-French
極 // 极 // jí // ① extremely ② pole (geography, physics) ③ utmost ④ top // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
無 // 无 // wú // ① non ② 71e radical // Chinese-French
無 // 无 // wú // ① not to have ② no ③ none ④ not ⑤ to lack ⑥ un- ⑦ -less // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① droit ② positif ③ correct ④ justement ⑤ précisément // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① straight ② upright ③ proper ④ main ⑤ principal ⑥ to correct ⑦ to rectify ⑧ exactly ⑨ just (at that time) ⑩ right (in that place) ⑪ (math.) positive // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① (calendrier) nouveau // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① first month of the lunar year // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① droit ② positif ③ correct ④ justement ⑤ précisément // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhèng // ① straight ② upright ③ proper ④ main ⑤ principal ⑥ to correct ⑦ to rectify ⑧ exactly ⑨ just (at that time) ⑩ right (in that place) ⑪ (math.) positive // CC-CEDICT
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① (calendrier) nouveau // Chinese-French
正 // 正 // zhēng // ① first month of the lunar year // CC-CEDICT
復 // 复 // fù // ① to go and return ② to return ③ to resume ④ to return to a normal or original state ⑤ to repeat ⑥ again ⑦ to recover ⑧ to restore ⑨ to turn over ⑩ to reply ⑪ to answer ⑫ to reply to a letter ⑬ to retaliate ⑭ to carry out // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
奇 // 奇 // qí // ① extraordinaire, merveilleux ② rare // Chinese-French
奇 // 奇 // qí // ① strange ② odd ③ weird ④ wonderful ⑤ surprisingly ⑥ unusually // CC-CEDICT
奇 // 奇 // jī // ① impair ② seul ③ reste // Chinese-French
奇 // 奇 // jī // ① odd (number) // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
復 // 复 // fù // ① to go and return ② to return ③ to resume ④ to return to a normal or original state ⑤ to repeat ⑥ again ⑦ to recover ⑧ to restore ⑨ to turn over ⑩ to reply ⑪ to answer ⑫ to reply to a letter ⑬ to retaliate ⑭ to carry out // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
妖 // 妖 // yāo // ① monstrueux ② ensorcelant ③ séduisant ④ monstre ⑤ démon // Chinese-French
妖 // 妖 // yāo // ① goblin ② witch ③ devil ④ bewitching ⑤ enchanting ⑥ monster ⑦ phantom ⑧ demon // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
迷 // 迷 // mí // ① fanatique ② fan ③ passionné ④ se perdre ⑤ charmer ⑥ séduire // Chinese-French
迷 // 迷 // mí // ① to bewilder ② crazy about ③ fan ④ enthusiast ⑤ lost ⑥ confused // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
日 // 日 // rì // ① soleil ② jour ③ 72e radical // Chinese-French
日 // 日 // rì // ① abbr. for 日本[Ri4 ben3], Japan // CC-CEDICT
日 // 日 // rì // ① sun ② day ③ date, day of the month // CC-CEDICT
固 // 固 // gù // ① solide ② ferme ③ fermement ④ résolument // Chinese-French
固 // 固 // gù // ① hard ② strong ③ solid ④ sure ⑤ assuredly ⑥ undoubtedly ⑦ of course ⑧ indeed ⑨ admittedly // CC-CEDICT
久 // 久 // jiǔ // ① longtemps ② de longue date // Chinese-French
久 // 久 // jiǔ // ① (long) time ② (long) duration of time // CC-CEDICT
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① par conséquent ② donc // Chinese-French
是以 // 是以 // shì yǐ // ① therefore ② thus ③ so // CC-CEDICT
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint // Chinese-French
聖人 // 圣人 // shèng rén // ① saint ② sage ③ refers to Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] ④ the current reigning Emperor // CC-CEDICT
方 // 方 // fāng // ① direction ② côté ③ lieu ④ méthode ⑤ moyen ⑥ carré ⑦ seulement // Chinese-French
方 // 方 // fāng // ① surname Fang // CC-CEDICT
方 // 方 // fāng // ① square ② power or involution (mathematics) ③ upright ④ honest ⑤ fair and square ⑥ direction ⑦ side ⑧ party (to a contract, dispute etc) ⑨ place ⑩ method ⑪ prescription (medicine) ⑫ just when ⑬ only or just ⑭ classifier for square things ⑮ abbr. for square or cubic meter // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
割 // 割 // gē // ① couper // Chinese-French
割 // 割 // gē // ① to cut ② to cut apart // CC-CEDICT
廉 // 廉 // lián // ① honnête ② intègre ③ bon marché // Chinese-French
廉 // 廉 // lián // ① surname Lian // CC-CEDICT
廉 // 廉 // lián // ① incorruptible ② honest ③ inexpensive ④ to investigate (old) ⑤ side wall of a traditional Chinese house (old) // CC-CEDICT
㢘 // 廉 // lián // ① old variant of 廉[lian2] // CC-CEDICT
亷 // 廉 // lián // ① old variant of 廉[lian2] // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
劌 // 刿 // guì // ① couper ② blesser // Chinese-French
劌 // 刿 // guì // ① cut ② injure // CC-CEDICT
直 // 直 // zhí // ① directement ② sans cesse ③ redresser ④ droit ⑤ vertical ⑥ franc ⑦ sincère // Chinese-French
直 // 直 // zhí // ① surname Zhi ② Zhi (c. 2000 BC), fifth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
直 // 直 // zhí // ① straight ② to straighten ③ fair and reasonable ④ frank ⑤ straightforward ⑥ (indicates continuing motion or action) ⑦ vertical ⑧ vertical downward stroke in Chinese characters // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
肆 // 肆 // sì // ① sans retenue // Chinese-French
肆 // 肆 // sì // ① four (banker's anti-fraud numeral) ② unrestrained ③ wanton ④ (literary) shop // CC-CEDICT
光 // 光 // guāng // ① rayon (de lumière) ② brillant, gloire ③ nu ④ épuiser ⑤ seul ⑥ (nom de famille) // Chinese-French
光 // 光 // guāng // ① light ② ray ③ CL:道[dao4] ④ bright ⑤ only ⑥ merely ⑦ to use up // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
燿 // 燿 // yào // ① brilliant ② glorious // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

If the government seems dark and tolerant,
The people will be honest and friendly;
If the government seems bright and sophisticated,
The people will be sly and cold-hearted.
What is bad goes with what is good;
What is good lies in what is bad.
Who can tell the exact difference
When all factors are considered?
The positive changes into the negative
And the negative changes into the positive.
Changing over and over again is the action of evil souls.
Such action has long been a confusing force in the world.
The wise person therefore prefers to be a simple square
That points in no directions,
A cutting tool that has no edge,
A straight line that goes nowhere,
And a light source that causes no fire.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

When the government is completely muddled, the common folk become pure and simple.
When the government conducts meticulous scrutiny, the common folk become devious and inscrutable.
It is on disaster that good fortune depends;
it is in good fortune that disaster lurks.
Who understands what the very best is?
It is to have no government at all!
Correctness turns into perversion.
Goodness turns into deviancy.
The people's confusion has certainly lasted a long time.
This is why the sage is square but does not cut,
He is pointed but does not stab.
He is straight but does not align.
He is bright but does not shine.
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

58 







Home