Chapter 61 On the Te of humility.
>  
1 Verses | Page 1 / 1
(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


Show / Hide
(⁎)
(Ⅱ)
(Ⅲ)
(Ⅳ)
(Ⅴ)
(Ⅵ)
(Ⅶ)
(Ⅷ)


61. 1  
A great country is the undercurrent,

Who governs a large country must be like the [Yang-tse-]chiang and the sea. He must belong to the undercurrent and not be opposed to what is small and insignificant.

the union of the empire,

A great country is one where scholars and people of the empire assemble,

the female of the empire. The female always by quietness conquers the male.

The female is of the Yin class. Weak and humble she adapts hers If and does not take the initiative. Whereby woman is able to bend man and Yin is able to vanquish Yang, is by their quietly keeping still and not taking the lead.

By quietness she submits.

The way of the Yin is to keep quietly still and to submit humbly.

Therefore a great country by submitting to a small country thus wins the small country.

If one is able humbly to submit, one always wins.

If a small country submits to a great country, it wins the great country.

This means: Though a country may be neither great nor small, it is able to keep to humility and to nourish its people. Then it experiences neither mistakes nor losses.

Therefore one submits and wins, one submits and is won.

The submitting means that a great country by submitting to a small country, and a small country by submitting to a great country, through justice win each other.

Now a great country ought not to exceed the wish to make people humble and to nourish them. A small country ought not to exceed the wish to let people come in and to employ them.

A great country, in order not to lose its subjects, thus assembles the [people from] the small countries and turns them into shepherds and labourers. It induces them to become menials.

Now of both, each obtains what it wishes for. The great one must submit.

A great country and a small country, each gets what it wishes for. And the great one ought to submit.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 大國者下流,天下之交,天下之牝。牝常以靜勝牡,以靜為下。故大國以下小國,則取小國;小國以下大國,則取大國。故或下以取,或下而取。大國不過欲兼畜人,小國不過欲入事人。夫兩者各得其所欲,大者宜為下。

《老子河上公章句·謙德》: 大國者下流,天下之交,天下之牝。牝常以靜勝牡,以靜為下。故大國以下小國,則取小國,小國以下大國,則取大國。故或下以取,或下而取。大國不過欲兼畜人,小國不過欲入事人。夫兩者各得其所欲,

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 大邦者下流也,天下之牝,天下之郊也。牝恆以靚勝牡,為其靚□□宜為下大邦□下小□,則取小邦;小邦以下大邦,則取於大邦。故或下以取,或下而取□。大邦者不過欲兼畜人,小邦者不過欲入事人。夫皆得其欲,□□□□□為下。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 大國□□□□□□□。牝也天下之交也,牝恆以靜朕牡。為其靜也,故宜為下也。故大國以下□國,則取小國;小國以下大國,則取於大國。故或下□□□下而取。故大國者不□欲並畜人,小國不□欲入事人。夫□□其欲,則大者宜為下。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

大國者下流,治大國,當如居下流,不逆細微。天下之交,大國,天下士民之所交會。天下之牝。牝者,陰類也。柔謙和而不昌也。牝常以靜勝牡,女所以能屈男,陰勝陽,以,安靜不先求之也。以靜為下。陰道以安靜為謙下。故大國以下小國,則取小國,能謙下之,則常有之。小國以下大國,則取大國。此言國無大小,能持謙畜人,則無過失也。故或下以取,或下而取。下者謂大國以下小國,小國以下大國,更以義相取。大國不過欲兼畜人,大國不失下,則兼併小國而牧畜之。小國不過欲入事人。使為臣僕。夫兩者各得其所欲,大者宜為下。大國小國各欲得其所,大國又宜為謙下
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

A big country may be compared to the lower part of a river. It is the converging point of the world; It is the female of the world. The female always overcomes the male by tranquillity, And by tranquillity she is underneath.
A big state can take over a small state if it places itself below the small state; And the small state can take over a big state if it places itself below the big state.
Thus some, by placing themselves below, take over (others), And some, by being (naturally) low, take over (other states).
After all, what a big state wants is but to annex and herd others, And what a small state wants is merely to join and serve others.
Since both big and small states get what they want, The big state should place itself low.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

A large state is down stream (hsia liu).
Where the rivers under heaven (t'ien hsia) converge,
Is the female (p'in) under heaven.
The female always wins the male (mou) by stillness (ching),
By stillness it is low-lying (hsia).
Therefore, by being low-lying (hsia) to a small state,
A large state acquires (ch'ü) a small state.
By lowering (hsia) itself to a large state,
A small state acquires a large state.
The one acquires by being low-lying (hsia),
The other acquires by lowering (hsia).
A large state without overstepping its boundary (pu kuo),
Wishes to keep others under its wings.
A small state without overstepping its boundary (pu kuo),
Wishes to offer service to others.
Now both are granted their proper wishes,
It is fitting that a large state takes the low (hsia) place.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

A great state is the worlds low-stream (to which all the river flows [sic] down), the world's field and the world's female. The female always conquers the male by quietude, which is employed as a means to lower oneself. Thus a great state lowers itself towards a small state before it takes over the small state. A small state lowers itself towards a great state before it takes over the great state. Therefore some lower themselves to take, while some lower themselves to gather. A great state wishes nothing more than to have and keep many people, and a small state wishes nothing more than to get more things to do. When the two both mean to obtain their wishes, the greater one should lower itself.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① colosse // Chinese-French
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① a power (i.e. a dominant country) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
下流 // 下流 // xià liú // ① bas ② sale ③ grossier // Chinese-French
下流 // 下流 // xià liú // ① lower course of a river ② low-class ③ mean and lowly ④ vulgar ⑤ obscene // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
交 // 交 // jiāo // ① ensemble ② jonction ③ rencontre ④ livrer ⑤ remettre ⑥ échanger ⑦ se croiser ⑧ nouer des relations // Chinese-French
交 // 交 // jiāo // ① to hand over ② to deliver ③ to pay (money) ④ to turn over ⑤ to make friends ⑥ to intersect (lines) // CC-CEDICT
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① empire céleste // Chinese-French
天下 // 天下 // tiān xià // ① land under heaven ② the whole world ③ the whole of China ④ realm ⑤ rule // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
牝 // 牝 // pìn // ① femelle des animaux // Chinese-French
牝 // 牝 // pìn // ① (of a bird, animal or plant) female ② keyhole ③ valley // CC-CEDICT
牝 // 牝 // pìn // ① femelle des animaux // Chinese-French
牝 // 牝 // pìn // ① (of a bird, animal or plant) female ② keyhole ③ valley // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① souvent ② fréquemment ③ ordinaire ④ commun ⑤ constant ⑥ invariable // Chinese-French
常 // 常 // cháng // ① surname Chang // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① always ② ever ③ often ④ frequently ⑤ common ⑥ general ⑦ constant // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① calme ② silencieux // Chinese-French
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① still ② calm ③ quiet ④ not moving // CC-CEDICT
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① remarquable ② excellent ③ supérieur ④ être égal à ⑤ être à la hauteur de ⑥ pouvoir supporter ⑦ victoire ⑧ succès ⑨ vaincre ⑩ remporter la victoire sur ⑪ surpasser ⑫ dépasser // Chinese-French
勝 // 胜 // shèng // ① victory ② success ③ to beat ④ to defeat ⑤ to surpass ⑥ victorious ⑦ superior to ⑧ to get the better of ⑨ better than ⑩ surpassing ⑪ superb (of vista) ⑫ beautiful (scenery) ⑬ wonderful (view) ⑭ (Taiwan pr. [sheng1]) able to bear ⑮ equal to (a task) // CC-CEDICT
牡 // 牡 // mǔ // ① mâle // Chinese-French
牡 // 牡 // mǔ // ① (of a bird, animal or plant) male ② key ③ hills // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① calme ② silencieux // Chinese-French
靜 // 静 // jìng // ① still ② calm ③ quiet ④ not moving // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① colosse // Chinese-French
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① a power (i.e. a dominant country) // CC-CEDICT
以下 // 以下 // yǐ xià // ① au-dessous ② en-dessous ③ suivant // Chinese-French
以下 // 以下 // yǐ xià // ① that level or lower ② that amount or less ③ the following // CC-CEDICT
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① petit ② jeune // Chinese-French
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① small ② tiny ③ few ④ young // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① prendre ② reprendre ③ obtenir ④ adopter ⑤ choisir // Chinese-French
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① to take ② to get ③ to choose ④ to fetch // CC-CEDICT
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① petit ② jeune // Chinese-French
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① small ② tiny ③ few ④ young // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① petit ② jeune // Chinese-French
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① small ② tiny ③ few ④ young // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
以下 // 以下 // yǐ xià // ① au-dessous ② en-dessous ③ suivant // Chinese-French
以下 // 以下 // yǐ xià // ① that level or lower ② that amount or less ③ the following // CC-CEDICT
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① colosse // Chinese-French
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① a power (i.e. a dominant country) // CC-CEDICT
則 // 则 // zé // ① règle ② règlement ③ alors ④ donc // Chinese-French
則 // 则 // zé // ① (conjunction used to express contrast with a previous clause) but ② then ③ standard ④ norm ⑤ principle ⑥ to imitate ⑦ to follow ⑧ classifier for written items // CC-CEDICT
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① prendre ② reprendre ③ obtenir ④ adopter ⑤ choisir // Chinese-French
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① to take ② to get ③ to choose ④ to fetch // CC-CEDICT
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① colosse // Chinese-French
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① a power (i.e. a dominant country) // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
或 // 或 // huò // ① ou ② soit...soit... ③ probablement ④ peut-être // Chinese-French
或 // 或 // huò // ① maybe ② perhaps ③ might ④ possibly ⑤ or // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① prendre ② reprendre ③ obtenir ④ adopter ⑤ choisir // Chinese-French
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① to take ② to get ③ to choose ④ to fetch // CC-CEDICT
或 // 或 // huò // ① ou ② soit...soit... ③ probablement ④ peut-être // Chinese-French
或 // 或 // huò // ① maybe ② perhaps ③ might ④ possibly ⑤ or // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
而 // 而 // ér // ① et ② mais ③ tandis que ④ alors que // Chinese-French
而 // 而 // ér // ① and ② as well as ③ and so ④ but (not) ⑤ yet (not) ⑥ (indicates causal relation) ⑦ (indicates change of state) ⑧ (indicates contrast) // CC-CEDICT
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① prendre ② reprendre ③ obtenir ④ adopter ⑤ choisir // Chinese-French
取 // 取 // qǔ // ① to take ② to get ③ to choose ④ to fetch // CC-CEDICT
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① colosse // Chinese-French
大國 // 大国 // dà guó // ① a power (i.e. a dominant country) // CC-CEDICT
不過 // 不过 // bù guò // ① mais ② néanmoins ③ seulement ④ pas plus que // Chinese-French
不過 // 不过 // bù guò // ① only ② merely ③ no more than ④ but ⑤ however ⑥ anyway (to get back to a previous topic) ⑦ cannot be more (after adjectival) // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
兼 // 兼 // jiān // ① double ② simultanément ③ en même temps // Chinese-French
兼 // 兼 // jiān // ① double ② twice ③ simultaneous ④ holding two or more (official) posts at the same time // CC-CEDICT
畜 // 畜 // chù // ① bestiaux ② animaux domestiques // Chinese-French
畜 // 畜 // chù // ① livestock ② domesticated animal ③ domestic animal // CC-CEDICT
畜 // 畜 // xù // ① élever ② nourrir // Chinese-French
畜 // 畜 // xù // ① to raise (animals) // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① petit ② jeune // Chinese-French
小 // 小 // xiǎo // ① small ② tiny ③ few ④ young // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
不過 // 不过 // bù guò // ① mais ② néanmoins ③ seulement ④ pas plus que // Chinese-French
不過 // 不过 // bù guò // ① only ② merely ③ no more than ④ but ⑤ however ⑥ anyway (to get back to a previous topic) ⑦ cannot be more (after adjectival) // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
入 // 入 // rù // ① entrer ② adhérer ③ entrée ④ revenu // Chinese-French
入 // 入 // rù // ① to enter ② to go into ③ to join ④ to become a member of ⑤ to confirm or agree with ⑥ abbr. for 入聲|入声[ru4 sheng1] // CC-CEDICT
事 // 事 // shì // ① être occupé ② être engagé dans ③ affaire ④ chose ⑤ accident ⑥ trouble ⑦ travail ⑧ responsabilité ⑨ implication ⑩ empêtrement // Chinese-French
事 // 事 // shì // ① matter ② thing ③ item ④ work ⑤ affair ⑥ CL:件[jian4],樁|桩[zhuang1],回[hui2] // CC-CEDICT
人 // 人 // rén // ① une personne ② être humain ③ homo sapiens // Chinese-French
人 // 人 // rén // ① man ② person ③ people ④ CL:個|个[ge4],位[wei4] // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① mari // Chinese-French
夫 // 夫 // fū // ① husband ② man ③ manual worker ④ conscripted laborer (old) // CC-CEDICT
夫 // 夫 // fú // ① (classical) this, that ② he, she, they ③ (exclamatory final particle) ④ (initial particle, introduces an opinion) // CC-CEDICT
兩者 // 两者 // liǎng zhě // ① deux côtés // Chinese-French
兩者 // 两者 // liǎng zhě // ① both sides // CC-CEDICT
各得其所 // 各得其所 // gè dé qí suǒ // ① each in the correct place ② each is provided for // CC-CEDICT
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① envie ② désir ③ désirer ④ vouloir // Chinese-French
欲 // 欲 // yù // ① to wish for ② to desire ③ variant of 慾|欲[yu4] // CC-CEDICT
慾 // 欲 // yù // ① desire ② appetite ③ passion ④ lust ⑤ greed // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
宜 // 宜 // yí // ① convenable ② approprié ③ il faut ④ il vaut mieux // Chinese-French
宜 // 宜 // yí // ① surname Yi // CC-CEDICT
宜 // 宜 // yí // ① proper ② should ③ suitable ④ appropriate // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
下 // 下 // xià // ① sous ② suivant ③ prochain ④ bas ⑤ en bas ⑥ diminuer ⑦ descendre ⑧ arriver à (une décision, une conclusion) // Chinese-French
下 // 下 // xià // ① down ② downwards ③ below ④ lower ⑤ later ⑥ next (week etc) ⑦ second (of two parts) ⑧ to decline ⑨ to go down ⑩ to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc) ⑪ measure word to show the frequency of an action // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

A big country should position itself low
So as to be the world's mother ocean.
The biggest producer is for ever still and peaceful,
Dissolves all the commotions with her stillness,
And keeps her lowness with her stillness, too.
Therefore, if a big country can be humble toward a small one,
It will win over the small country.
If a small country can be humble toward a big one,
It will win over the big country.
Thus, countries either lower themselves to win over others
Or lower themselves to be tolerated by others.
A big country's purpose is to support all kinds of people.
A small country's purpose is to gain support to serve people.
To satisfy the two purposes,
The big country should be more yielding in attitude.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

A large state is a catchment into which flow occurs.
It is where all under Heaven unite.
It is the female for all under Heaven.
The female always conquers the male because of quietude.
She is able to take the low position because of quietude.
Thus the large state, by placing itself beneath the small state,
Consequently takes over the small state.
The small state, by placing itself beneath the large state, subsequently is taken over by the large state.
Thus some, by taking a place beneath, take over, and some, by taking a place beneath, are taken over.
The large state should desire nothing more than to bring people together and nurture them, and the small state should desire nothing more than to join in and serve people.
In order that both obtain what they desire, it is fitting that the large one place itself beneath.
(Ⅷ)


Page: 1

61 







Home