Chapter 65 On the Te of simplicity.
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(Version and commentary of He Shanggong in English)


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65. 1  
Those who of old well practised Tao,

By this those are meant who of old with Tao well practised asceticism and governed the country.

Thereby did not enlighten the people.

They did not enlighten the people with Tao. Enlightenment is cunning hypocrisy.

They wanted to keep them stupid.

By Tao and Te they wanted to teach the people how to keep simple and plain and not to become hypocrites.

That the people are difficult to govern is because of the abundance of their knowledge.

As their wisdom is too much, they thus become cunning and hypocritical.

Therefore to govern a country by wisdom is to rob the country.

When the affairs of the government of a country are left to wise and intelligent men, it will surely secede from Tao and Te, and perversity will be its highest bliss. This is to rob the country.

To govern a country without wisdom is the country’s bliss.

When the affairs of a country are left to men neither wise nor intelligent, then the people keep to the right and do not work unto badness and outwardness. Ruler and subjects are near to each other, prince and minister work together. Thereby they bring the country’s bliss about.

Who knows these two will also be a model and pattern.

These two mean wisdom and ignorance. The wise man necessarily brings about theft and the ignorant man bliss. He himself is a model for the practice of asceticism and the government of the country.

To know always the model and pattern, this is called the Te of the dark one.

The dark one is heaven. To be able to know the pattern for the government of the country and the practice of asceticism, this means a Te which is identical with [that of] heaven.

The Te of the dark one is deep and far away.

The man who possesses the Te of the dark one is so deep that he cannot be fathomed, and so far away that he cannot be reached.

The contrary of things.

The man who possesses the Te of the dark one is the contrary of all beings. All beings wish to complete themselves, [but he who possesses] the Te of the dark one wishes to promote others.

And then he reaches the great obedience.

- Chinese :

《道德經》: 古之善為道者,非以明民,將以愚之。民之難治,以其智多。故以智治國,國之賊;不以智治國,國之福。知此兩者亦𥡴式。常知𥡴式,是謂玄德。玄德深矣,遠矣,與物反矣,然後乃至大順。

《老子河上公章句·淳德》: 古之善為道者,非以明民,將以愚之。民之難治,以其智多。故以智治國,國之賊;不以智治國,國之福。知此兩者亦稽式。常知稽式,是謂玄德。玄德深矣,遠矣,與物反矣!然後乃至於大順。

《馬王堆·老子甲德經》: 故曰:為道者,非以明民也,將以愚之也。民之難□也,以其知也。故以知邦,知邦之賊也;以不知﹦邦□□德也。恆知此兩者亦稽式也。恆知稽式,此胃玄德。玄德深矣,遠矣,與物□矣,乃□□□。

《馬王堆·老子乙德經》: 古之為道者,非以明□□□□□之也。夫民之難治也,以其知也。故以知知國,國之賊也;以不知知國,國之德也。恆知此兩者,亦稽式也。恆知稽式,是胃玄德。玄德深矣,遠矣,□物反也,乃至大順。
(⁎)
- He Shanggong (Chinese) :

古之善為道者,非以明民,將以愚之。說古之善以道治身及治國者,不以道教民明智巧詐也,將以道德教民,使質朴不詐偽。民之難治,以其智多。民之所以難治者,以其智多而為巧偽。故以智治國,國之賊;使智慧之人治國之政事,必遠道德,妄作威福,為國之賊也。不以智治國,國之福。不使智慧之人治國之政事,則民守正直,不為邪飾,上下相親,君臣同力,故為國之福也。知此兩者亦稽式。兩者謂智與不智也。常能智者為賊,不智者為福,是治身治國之法式也。常知稽式,是謂玄德。玄,天也。能知治身及治國之法式,是謂與天同德也。玄德深矣,遠矣,玄德之人深不可測,遠不可及也。與物反矣!玄德之人與萬物反異,萬物欲益己,玄德施與人也。然後乃至於大順。玄德與萬物反異,故能至大順。順天理也。
(Ⅱ)
- Wing-Tsit Chan (1963) :

In ancient times those who practiced Tao well Did not seek to enlighten people, but to make them ignorant.
People are difficult to govern because they have too much knowledge. Therefore he who rules the state through knowledge is a robber of the state; He who rules a state not through knowledge is a blessing to the state.
One who knows these two things also (knows) the standard. Always to know the standard is called profound and secret virtue.
Virtue becomes deep and far-reaching, And with it all things return to their original state. Then complete harmony will be reached.
(Ⅲ)
- Ellen Marie Chen (1989) :

Those in the past who were good at practicing Tao,
Did not want to enlighten (ming) the people,
But to keep them in ignorance (yü).
People are hard to rule,
Because they know (chih) too much.
Therefore, to rule a nation by knowledge,
Is to be the nation's thief.
Not to rule a nation by knowledge,
Is to be the nation's blessing.
To know these two is to know heaven's rule (chi shih).
Always knowing heaven's rule,
Is called the dark (hsüan) te.
The dark te clarifies (ch'ing) and is far away (yüan).
It reverts (fan) with things.
Then there arrives the great harmony.
(Ⅳ)
- Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904) :

In olden times the best practitioners of Tao did not use it to awaken people to knowledge,
But used it to restore them to simplicity.
People are difficult to govern because they have much knowledge.
Therefore to govern the country by increasing the people's knowledge is to be the destroyer of the country;
To govern the country by decreasing knowledge is to be the blesser of the country.
To be acquainted with these two ways is to know the standard;
To keep the standard always in mind is to have sublime virtue.
Sublime virtue is infinitely deep and wide.
It goes to reverse all things;
And so it attains perfect peace.
(Ⅴ)
- World by world translation :

Traditional // simplified // pinyin // definition // dictionary
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancien ② antique // Chinese-French
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① surname Gu // CC-CEDICT
古 // 古 // gǔ // ① ancient ② old ③ paleo- // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
善 // 善 // shàn // ① bon ② bienveillant ③ habile // Chinese-French
善 // 善 // shàn // ① good (virtuous) ② benevolent ③ well-disposed ④ good at sth ⑤ to improve or perfect // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wèi // ① because of ② for ③ to // CC-CEDICT
為 // 为 // wéi // ① as (in the capacity of) ② to take sth as ③ to act as ④ to serve as ⑤ to behave as ⑥ to become ⑦ to be ⑧ to do ⑨ by (in the passive voice) // CC-CEDICT
道 // 道 // dào // ① doctrine, raison ② voie ③ dire ④ circuit, intendance // Chinese-French
道 // 道 // dào // ① road ② path ③ CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3] ④ principle ⑤ truth ⑥ morality ⑦ reason ⑧ skill ⑨ method ⑩ Dao (of Daoism) ⑪ to say ⑫ to speak ⑬ to talk ⑭ classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process ⑮ (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times) // CC-CEDICT
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (placé après un adjectif ou un verbe est utilisé comme substantif pour désigner une personne ou une chose) // Chinese-French
者 // 者 // zhě // ① (after a verb or adjective) one who (is) ... ② (after a noun) person involved in ... ③ -er ④ -ist ⑤ (used after a number or 後|后[hou4] or 前[qian2] to refer to sth mentioned previously) ⑥ (used after a term, to mark a pause before defining the term) ⑦ (old) (used at the end of a command) ⑧ (old) this // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① ne pas ② faux ③ abréviation d'Afrique ④ 175e radical // Chinese-French
非 // 非 // fēi // ① abbr. for 非洲[Fei1 zhou1], Africa // CC-CEDICT
非 // 非 // fēi // ① to not be ② not ③ wrong ④ incorrect ⑤ non- ⑥ un- ⑦ in- ⑧ to reproach or blame ⑨ (colloquial) to insist on ⑩ simply must // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
明 // 明 // míng // ① brillant ② clair ③ comprendre ④ vue ⑤ distinct ⑥ net ⑦ ouvert ⑧ public ⑨ explicite ⑩ prompt ⑪ leste ⑫ prochain ⑬ suivant ⑭ ouvertement // Chinese-French
明 // 明 // míng // ① Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) ② surname Ming ③ Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God // CC-CEDICT
明 // 明 // míng // ① bright ② opposite: dark 暗[an4] ③ (of meaning) clear ④ to understand ⑤ next ⑥ public or open ⑦ wise ⑧ generic term for a sacrifice to the gods // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① avec ② par ③ au moyen de ④ (suivi du COD, qui est suivi à son tour d'un verbe transitif, pour former l'inversion) // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiāng // ① will ② shall ③ to use ④ to take ⑤ to checkmate ⑥ just a short while ago ⑦ (introduces object of main verb, used in the same way as 把[ba3]) // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① général // Chinese-French
將 // 将 // jiàng // ① general ② commander-in-chief (military) ③ king (chess piece) ④ to command ⑤ to lead // CC-CEDICT
將 // 将 // qiāng // ① to desire ② to invite ③ to request // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
愚 // 愚 // yú // ① bête ② idiot ③ tricher ou tromper // Chinese-French
愚 // 愚 // yú // ① to be stupid ② to cheat or deceive ③ me or I (modest) // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① peuple ② gens du commun // Chinese-French
民 // 民 // mín // ① surname Min // CC-CEDICT
民 // 民 // mín // ① the people ② nationality ③ citizen // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
難 // 难 // nán // ① difficile ② ennuyeux ③ fatigant // Chinese-French
難 // 难 // nán // ① difficult (to...) ② problem ③ difficulty ④ difficult ⑤ not good // CC-CEDICT
難 // 难 // nàn // ① désastre ② détresse ③ clamité ④ infortune ⑤ malheur // Chinese-French
難 // 难 // nàn // ① disaster ② distress ③ to scold // CC-CEDICT
治 // 治 // zhì // ① gouverner ② administrer ③ guérir ④ soigner ⑤ aménager ⑥ paix // Chinese-French
治 // 治 // zhì // ① to rule ② to govern ③ to manage ④ to control ⑤ to harness (a river) ⑥ to treat (a disease) ⑦ to wipe out (a pest) ⑧ to punish ⑨ to research // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
其 // 其 // qí // ① son ② sa ③ ses ④ leur ⑤ leurs ⑥ il(s) ⑦ elle(s) ⑧ ceci ⑨ cela // Chinese-French
其 // 其 // qí // ① his ② her ③ its ④ their ⑤ that ⑥ such ⑦ it (refers to sth preceding it) // CC-CEDICT
智 // 智 // zhì // ① sagesse // Chinese-French
智 // 智 // zhì // ① wisdom ② knowledge // CC-CEDICT
多 // 多 // duō // ① beaucoup ② nombreux ③ de plus ④ de trop ⑤ plus de // Chinese-French
多 // 多 // duō // "① many ② much ③ often ④ a lot of ⑤ numerous ⑥ more ⑦ in excess ⑧ how (to what extent) ⑨ multi- ⑩ Taiwan pr. [duo2] when it means ""how""" // CC-CEDICT
故 // 故 // gù // ① incident ② cause ③ à dessein ④ exprès ⑤ raison ⑥ ancien ⑦ mourir // Chinese-French
故 // 故 // gù // ① happening ② instance ③ reason ④ cause ⑤ intentional ⑥ former ⑦ old ⑧ friend ⑨ therefore ⑩ hence ⑪ (of people) to die, dead // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
智 // 智 // zhì // ① sagesse // Chinese-French
智 // 智 // zhì // ① wisdom ② knowledge // CC-CEDICT
治國 // 治国 // zhì guó // ① régner sur un pays // Chinese-French
治國 // 治国 // zhì guó // ① to rule a country // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
賊 // 贼 // zéi // ① rusé ② malin ③ voleur ④ traître // Chinese-French
賊 // 贼 // zéi // ① thief ② traitor ③ wily ④ deceitful ⑤ evil ⑥ extremely // CC-CEDICT
不 // 不 // bù // ① ne... pas ② non ③ (pour former une question placé à la fin d'une phrase, pour indiquer l'indifférence avec shen me ④ pour indiquer une alternative avec jiu) // Chinese-French
不 // 不 // bù // ① (negative prefix) ② not ③ no // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① prendre ② utiliser ③ selon ④ à cause de ⑤ pour // Chinese-French
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① abbr. for Israel 以色列[Yi3 se4 lie4] // CC-CEDICT
以 // 以 // yǐ // ① to use ② by means of ③ according to ④ in order to ⑤ because of ⑥ at (a certain date or place) // CC-CEDICT
㕥 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
㠯 // 以 // yǐ // ① old variant of 以[yi3] // CC-CEDICT
智 // 智 // zhì // ① sagesse // Chinese-French
智 // 智 // zhì // ① wisdom ② knowledge // CC-CEDICT
治國 // 治国 // zhì guó // ① régner sur un pays // Chinese-French
治國 // 治国 // zhì guó // ① to rule a country // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① pays ② royaume ③ État // Chinese-French
國 // 国 // guó // ① surname Guo // CC-CEDICT
國 // 国 // guó // ① country ② nation ③ state ④ national ⑤ CL:個|个[ge4] // CC-CEDICT
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (remplaçant une personne ou une chose comme complément) ② (particule possessive dans différentes expressions) // Chinese-French
之 // 之 // zhī // ① (possessive particle, literary equivalent of 的[de5]) ② him ③ her ④ it // CC-CEDICT
福 // 福 // fú // ① bonheur ② bonne fortune // Chinese-French
福 // 福 // fú // ① surname Fu ② abbr. for Fujian province 福建省[Fu2 jian4 sheng3] // CC-CEDICT
福 // 福 // fú // ① good fortune ② happiness ③ luck // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
此 // 此 // cǐ // ① ce ② ici // Chinese-French
此 // 此 // cǐ // ① this ② these // CC-CEDICT
兩者 // 两者 // liǎng zhě // ① deux côtés // Chinese-French
兩者 // 两者 // liǎng zhě // ① both sides // CC-CEDICT
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① aussi ② également // Chinese-French
亦 // 亦 // yì // ① also // CC-CEDICT
式 // 式 // shì // ① type ② modèle ③ style ④ forme ⑤ cérémonie ⑥ rituel ⑦ formule ⑧ mode ⑨ à la manière de // Chinese-French
式 // 式 // shì // ① type ② form ③ pattern ④ style // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① souvent ② fréquemment ③ ordinaire ④ commun ⑤ constant ⑥ invariable // Chinese-French
常 // 常 // cháng // ① surname Chang // CC-CEDICT
常 // 常 // cháng // ① always ② ever ③ often ④ frequently ⑤ common ⑥ general ⑦ constant // CC-CEDICT
知 // 知 // zhī // ① savoir ② connaître ③ connaissances // Chinese-French
知 // 知 // zhī // ① to know ② to be aware // CC-CEDICT
式 // 式 // shì // ① type ② modèle ③ style ④ forme ⑤ cérémonie ⑥ rituel ⑦ formule ⑧ mode ⑨ à la manière de // Chinese-French
式 // 式 // shì // ① type ② form ③ pattern ④ style // CC-CEDICT
是 // 是 // shì // ① être ② oui ③ correct // Chinese-French
是 // 是 // shì // ① is ② are ③ am ④ yes ⑤ to be // CC-CEDICT
昰 // 是 // shì // ① variant of 是[shi4] ② (used in given names) // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① dire ② adresser la parole ③ être appelé ④ penser // Chinese-French
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① surname Wei // CC-CEDICT
謂 // 谓 // wèi // ① to speak ② to say ③ to name ④ to designate ⑤ meaning ⑥ sense // CC-CEDICT
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① mystérieux ② obscur ③ incroyable // Chinese-French
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① black ② mysterious // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① mystérieux ② obscur ③ incroyable // Chinese-French
玄 // 玄 // xuán // ① black ② mysterious // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① vertu ② moralité ③ volonté ④ coeur ⑤ bonté ⑥ bienveillance ⑦ (abréviation d'Allemagne) // Chinese-French
德 // 德 // dé // ① Germany ② German ③ abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2] // CC-CEDICT
德 // 德 // dé // ① virtue ② goodness ③ morality ④ ethics ⑤ kindness ⑥ favor ⑦ character ⑧ kind // CC-CEDICT
悳 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
惪 // 德 // dé // ① variant of 德[de2] // CC-CEDICT
深 // 深 // shēn // ① profond ② difficile ③ intime ④ étroit ⑤ foncé ⑥ très ⑦ profondément ⑧ tard // Chinese-French
深 // 深 // shēn // ① deep ② depth ③ deeply ④ (of a color) dark ⑤ deep ⑥ rich // CC-CEDICT
㴱 // 深 // shēn // ① old variant of 深[shen1] // CC-CEDICT
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① (finale) : c'est tout // Chinese-French
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① classical final particle, similar to modern 了[le5] // CC-CEDICT
遠 // 远 // yuǎn // ① éloigné ② loin // Chinese-French
遠 // 远 // yuǎn // ① far ② distant ③ remote ④ (intensifier in a comparison) by far ⑤ much (lower etc) // CC-CEDICT
遠 // 远 // yuàn // ① to distance oneself from (classical) // CC-CEDICT
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① (finale) : c'est tout // Chinese-French
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① classical final particle, similar to modern 了[le5] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yú // ① (particule exprimant le doute) // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yú // ① variant of 歟|欤[yu2] // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① et ② s'allier ③ offrir ④ donner // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yǔ // ① and ② to give ③ together with // CC-CEDICT
與 // 与 // yù // ① prendre part à // Chinese-French
與 // 与 // yù // ① to take part in // CC-CEDICT
物 // 物 // wù // ① objet ② chose ③ être, matière // Chinese-French
物 // 物 // wù // ① thing ② object ③ matter ④ abbr. for physics 物理 // CC-CEDICT
反 // 反 // fǎn // ① tourner ② renverser ③ révolter ④ lutter contre ⑤ s'opposer ⑥ anti- ⑦ contraire ⑧ inverse // Chinese-French
反 // 反 // fǎn // ① contrary ② in reverse ③ inside out or upside down ④ to reverse ⑤ to return ⑥ to oppose ⑦ opposite ⑧ against ⑨ anti- ⑩ to rebel ⑪ to use analogy ⑫ instead ⑬ abbr. for 反切[fan3 qie4] phonetic system // CC-CEDICT
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① (finale) : c'est tout // Chinese-French
矣 // 矣 // yǐ // ① classical final particle, similar to modern 了[le5] // CC-CEDICT
然後 // 然后 // rán hòu // ① puis ② ensuite // Chinese-French
然後 // 然后 // rán hòu // ① after ② then (afterwards) ③ after that ④ afterwards // CC-CEDICT
乃至 // 乃至 // nǎi zhì // ① même ② mais encore // Chinese-French
乃至 // 乃至 // nǎi zhì // ① and even ② to go so far as to // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dà // ① grand ② massif // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dà // ① big ② huge ③ large ④ major ⑤ great ⑥ wide ⑦ deep ⑧ older (than) ⑨ oldest ⑩ eldest ⑪ greatly ⑫ very much ⑬ (dialect) father ⑭ father's elder or younger brother // CC-CEDICT
大 // 大 // dài // ① docteur ② médecin // Chinese-French
大 // 大 // dài // ① see 大夫[dai4 fu5] // CC-CEDICT
順 // 顺 // shùn // ① suivant ② le long de ③ suivre ④ aller le long de ⑤ favorable // Chinese-French
順 // 顺 // shùn // ① to obey ② to follow ③ to arrange ④ to make reasonable ⑤ along ⑥ favorable // CC-CEDICT
(Ⅵ)
- Yi Wu (1989) :

The ancient wise persons who were good at keeping the Way
Did not try to achieve it by teaching sophisticated knowledge,
But by ridding people of the folly such knowledge holds.
A foolishly sophisticated nation is difficult to govern.
Therefore, there are two models which a ruler may follow:
One who rules with sophistication is stealing a nation,
One who rules with no sophistication is saving a nation.
To make the wise choice always is to be subtle and profound.
The subtle and profound wisdom is rooted far back in time
And such wisdom will also function far ahead into the future.
Therefore, such wisdom can be used
To help bring about what is natural in the world.
(Ⅶ)
- Lynn (2004) :

Those in antiquity who were good at practicing the Dao did not use it to make the common folk intelligent but used it to make them stupid.
The reason the common folk are hard to govern is that they have too much knowledge.
Thus to use knowledge to govern the state is to bring about the theft of the state.
Not to use knowledge to govern the state is to enrich the state.
One should understand these two, for they constitute a consistent rule.
Constant understanding of this consistent rule is called "mysterious virtue."
Mysterious virtue is indeed profound, indeed far-reaching!
Such a one helps the people revert,
For only then will perfect compliance be attained.
(Ⅷ)


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